- Created by: Dxminix
- Created on: 13-01-17 17:43
Who are the Nobility?
Who were they?
- Class of person distinguished by high birth or rank
- The quality of belonging to the aristocracy
What did Henry do?
- He put an end to the independent feudal nobility and started the beginning of the service nobility
- They were no longer independent of the king
- Win their support or force them to support him through force
- Used second option a lot more when dealing with the nobility (had to secure his position as head of England)
- Reduced all things they relied on - Land, Wealth and Support
Acts of Attainder
What was this?
- Used them to seize titles and possessions of nobles that he suspected of disloyalty
- It was a special law that meant an 'attained' family could lose the right to inherit its land and would face social and economic ruin
- It could be reversed though
- Henry passed 138 attainders and reversed 46
- This was more than Edward IV
- Called it a 'cat and mouse policy'
What was this?
- This granted special favours such as land and possessions to those who were loyal and supported Henry VII
- He was careful not to over distribute titles
- The nobility didn't really benefit from this
- Jasper Tudor became the Earl of Oxford due to military support
- Patronage had to be earned under Henry VII
- It was not an automatic privilege for the upper class
What was this?
- These were groups of men used by the nobles to help maintain control and enforce law
- Could be lawless at local and national level (War of The Roses)
- Used as armed forces in order to defend and threaten anyone who threatened their master
- Edward IV had passed laws against retaining except for domestic servants and legal advisors but it was not strictly enforced
- Condemned retaining and passed laws in 1487 and 1504
- Recent historians believe that retaining under Henry VII was not eliminated because Henry VII needed it to support him
- Men could employ retainers for the king's service alone and have to get permission and a licence from the government
- henry was certainly a lot stricter and punished those that went against the law
What were these?
- Henry used this if he had suspicions against a noble but could not prove treason
- Created written agreements whereby if a person offended the king was either forced to pay up front
- They also promised to pay a certain amount to ensure good behaviour
- Was a method of enforcing loyalty
- Sums ranged from £400 to £10,000 for a noble
How were they used?
- Used haphazardly by the other 15th century monarchs
- Henry used them as an integral part of his policy for controlling the nobility by threatening financial ruin to anyone that dare offend him
- Council Learned in Law was in control of the bonds
Council of Learned in Law
What was this?
- Assumed control over all financial matters relating to the crown
- Members acted as investigators and judges in cases where there was suspicion that a nobleman was not paying correct dues to the king
- Sir Reginald Bray, Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson were in charge
- It was hated because it collected bonds
- It was the most important of all Henry's institutions of government because it was involved in the maintenance of law and order
- Dudley later admitted that he had lied in 80 cases and was executed under Henry VIII
How do they relate to Henry?
- It describes the rights of powers which the monarch could exercise without requiring the consent of parliament
- Thomas Penn (The Winter King) argued that the Council Learned in Law caused fear, frustration and anger as it bypassed the normal legal system
How did he control Nobility?
Order of the Garter?
- An honour that was bestowed on the most important knights who became the most senior rank of knighthood
- Henry VII gave out 37 in his lifetime
- William Stanley receieved this and felt it was a poor reward as their was no financial gain
Why does Henry keep the nobility small?
- Easier to control like that
- Rarely elevated anyone to uppoer levels of society as it was a big rewards when he did
- Creation of peers was loss of money for Henry
Trusting the Nobility
Why did Henry trust the Nobility?
- Henry recognised the importance of the nobles to control the provinces in the abscence of a standing army or an adequate police force
- He never attempted to interfere with their authority in the localities where they continued to dominate local government
- He gave over lordship to the more disturbed areas of his kingdom to show support and trust to people like Henry Percy who governed the north