Infectious Disease - Malaria
Malria is a parasitic infection spread by mosquitos that carry the disease.
The WHO (World Health Organisation) estimates that:
- 3.3 million worldwide are at risk of contracting malaria
- 247 million new cases every year
- Malaria is present in 108 differant countries
- Off all those affected, 92% live in Africa
Infectious Disease - HIV/AIDS - Russia
- Estimated 3 million suffering from HIV in Russia
- Half of all Russian citizens could be infected with HIV by 2020
- 80-90% of HIV infections in Russia have been caused by intravenous drug use, a rising sight
- 1.6 million deaths of working age men in a 1998 study, resulting in a 2% loss of Russia's GDP
- By 2020 Russia's GDP could be between 1% and 10% lower than if there had been no AIDS cases in the country
- Bussiness will suffer through absent staff (working age high infection rate) and reduced productivity
- Households will lose income if working age members become sick, and will also have the extra expenditure on healthcare. This will lead to a greater vulnerability to poverty.
- The government will have to pay more towards helathcare, Russian GDP spent on healthcare has risen to 7% in 8 years
HIV/AIDS creates a multiplier effect a sick person not only drops out of work, but also casuses their partner to stop work. This can eventually lead to a downward spiral of poverty and deprivation for a family.
Non Communicable Disease - Cancer
- 60% of all deaths woldwide are caused by non communicable diseases
- 86% for deaths in HIC's and MIC's
- This figure is 50% in LIC's (where Cholera and AIDS still cause many deaths)
- One in eight deaths worldwide are caused by Cancer
- Every year Cancer claims 7 million lives
Lifestyle changes such as changing diets and an increae in the number of smokers is causing cancer incidents to increase. By 2020 there will be around 12 million cancer deaths a year.
- Economic cost of cancer cases in 2009 was $305 billion
- Loss of direct income for families due to not being able to work
- Cost of expensive treatment that may not actually work
- Can feel abandoned by the formal state health care system which can lead to them seeking unproffesional and non legitimate helath methods that prmoise hope , but instead abuse patients
Cancer in the USA
- Every year, 560,00 Americans die from cancer, and it is the second most common cause of death (after heart disease).
The burden of death from all cancers, paricularly lung cancer higlights the importance of tobaco control measures in the USA - as well as the need to provide localised cancer treatment and associated services.
Economic impacts of cancer in the USA:
- The USA has by far the highest economic cost of cancer in the world.
- The overall cost of cancer in 2008 was $230 billion
- It is estimated that the loss of productivity due to cancer deaths is equivalent to 1% of the national GDP per year
24% of Americans aged 18-64 have no health insurance in 2008
13% of children in America had no health insurance in 2008
Obesity - Mexico
In 1989, fewer than 10% of Mexican adults were considered to be overweight.
By 2008 that figure had risen to 71% of women and 66% of men
25% of Mexican children are also now thought to be overweight - an increase of 40% since 2000.
- Many Mexicans are now living more sedentary lives - much like the populations of other MIC's and HIC's
- Mexicans are eating more fatty and processed foods, and fewer whole grains and vegetables
- Unhealthy foods is now much more easily accessed and available in mexican supermarkets etc.
- Increased rate of diabetes, high blood preassure and heart disease
- 6.5-10 million Mexicans now estimated to be suffering from diabetes
- More than 70,000 mexicans die each year from diabetes related conditions
- The rabid growth of diabetes is strating to overburden the already strained healthcare system, with fears that if the trend continues, Mexicos healthcare system could become bankrupt.
Food crisis/famine - Ethiopia, 2009
in 2009, millions of impoverished ethopians faced the threat of undernourishment - and possibly starvation - as the country facwed its worst food crisis for decades.
- The number of Etiopian's who needed emergency food aid rose to 6.2 million
- Another 7.5 million recieved aid in return for work on community projects - as part of the National Productive Safety Net Programme, for peoplwe whose food suplies are chronically insecure.
- This brought the total being fed to 13.7 million
TNC - British American Tobacco
- Second largest tobacco company in the world - employing more than 60,000 people
- in 2009 it had a turnover of £40 billion
- Sells tobacco in more than 180 countries
BAT acceots that its products 'pose a health risk' but also points out that in 2009 it contributed more than £26 billion in taxes to governments worldwide.