Health and social care AS unit 1 Revision

summary of unit 1 human growth and development 

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  • Created by: Amy Joyce
  • Created on: 13-01-13 18:27

Growth + Development

Growth- An increase in physical size and/or strength. E.g. Height, weight.

Development- An increase in skills, abilities and capabilities. 

When a question asks about 'Health and well being' think of P.I.L.E.S

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Life stages

0-2 years- Infancy

3-8 years- Childhood

9-18 years- adolescence

19-45 years- early adulthood

46-65 years- middle adulthood

66 +- Later adulthood

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Conception: 23 pairs of chromosomes 

DNA- Half from mother and half from the father

Dominant and recessive genes

Genetic disorders Single gene disorders- Sickle cell anaemia

Trisomy- Downs syndrome

Foetal Scans Date the pregnancy, Check the heartbeat, Check development and check for any abnormalities

Amniocentesis is used to test amniotic fluid for downs syndrome

Growth and development: P.I.L.E.S Physical- can sit up, support own head 6mths, Intellectual- learns colours, Emotional- Sulks, Social- Shy, waves.

Primitive reflexes Rooting, sucking, grasping, walking, morro, 

Cephalocaudal development- development starts from the head downwards

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Growth and development: P.I.L.E.S

Physical-Builds towers using play blocks, Intellectual- can count, Emotional- Egocentric, Social- Follows instructions and chooses friends.

Types of play  Unoccupied play, solitary play, onlooker play, parallel play, associative and cooperative. Benefits of play  Confidence, imagination, cooperation skills and communication skills.

Stable family Nutritious meals, someone to confide in, someone to talk to, structured daily routine, increased developmental support and increased safety.

Negative experiences Embarrased, anger, low self esteem. isolation.

Socialisation- Process in which a child learns the norms, values and skills required to function in society.

Primary socialisation- The attitudes, morals and behaviours learnt at a young age from family.Secondary socialisation- Attitudes, morals and behaviours that are developed through exposeure to friends, school and the media etc. 

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Growth and development: PILES

Physical- Facial hair/ovulation

Intellectual- Abstract thinking

Emotional- Friends become more important than family, sexual exploration

Social- independence

Puberty Change from child to adult and prepares the body for reproduction                  Male- Facial hair develops, pubic hair develops, Shoulders broaden, muscle development, Sperm production, testosterone,                                                                                      Female- Pubic hair develops, hips widen, breasts develop, periods start (menarchy). oestrogen is produced.

Friendships Socialise with, explore, share feelings and excercise with.

Self concept During adolescent self concept decreases due to all of the changes of the body throughout puberty.

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Early Adulthood

Growth and development: PILES

Peak strength, life skills, commited relationships

Key skills that should be developed

Fit and able, enhanced social skills, emotional maturity.

Benefits of being active

Independence, weight control, Happines, reduce risk of dimentia, less lonely and form relationships.

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Middle adulthood

Growth and development: PILES

Menopause, wisdom, peak happiness and more time to socialise


Females ovaries stop producing and releasing eggs so the woman is no longer fertile/able to conceive. Usually occurrs between 45 and 55. Hot flushes, night sweats, irratibility and mood swings.

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Later adulthood

Growth and development: PILES

Eyesight declines, hearing declines, reduced mobility, loss of skin elasticity, memory issues, speach impairment, isolation, fearfullness, reduced social contact or more time to socialise.

Remaining active

Fitter, mobility improves,stimulation, creative, happier, increased self esteem, enhanced relationships.

Tired, less time for hobbies, anxiety, no social time.

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Factors effecting growth and development

Genetic factors Passed down in genes from parents, May contain faults in DNA, Inhertied characteristics include hair colour, eye colour and IQ

Genetic diseases Trisomy (3 chromosomes e.g. downs syndrome), Sickle cell anaemia. 

Lifestyle factors Smoking- addiction, cancers such as throat and lung cancer.

Alcohol- liver damage, depression, accidents.

Stress- Panic attacks, anxiety, weight issues, insomnia, depression and anger.

Healthy lifestyle- Diet, excercise, relationships, sleep medical check ups

Unhealthy lifestyle- poor diet, substance abuse, sexual behaviour

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Factors effecting growth and development

Socio-economic factors Seocondary socialisation- Friends, media, school. Fit in, builds confidence, anti-social behaviour, distrespect. Income- obesity, unhealthy diet, crime rate, housing, intellectual development. Employment- confidence, independence, stress, life expectency, learn new things. Social class- Education, employment, housing etc. Diet, obesity, stress, immune system. Culture- Background and beliefs. Value of education, belief system, mariginilised, prejudice, gender roles.

Physical environment Crime, pollution, education, housing, Disease, boredom, depression, stress, fear isolation.

Phsychological factors Relationships: Successful- bonding, love, confidence, advice, secure, self esteem. Negative- Confusion, anger, unhappy, stress

TERMS: Self image- how a person sees themselves. Self esteem- How and individual values themselves. Self concept- Self image+ esteem. 

Nature vs Nurture Nature- Genetic factors. Nurture- Environment

Example arguement: Obesity gene (Nature) VS diet (nurture)

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Health promotions

Definitions of health

Personal- Where the person deems themselves as healthy.

Positive- Focuses on personal capabilities 

Negative- Focuses on the prescence or absence of disease

Holistic- Viewing the person as a whole taking into account their culture, background, beliefs as well as physical, intellectual and social needs. 

AGE, EDUCATION and CULTURE- affect views of health.

AIMS of health promotions  Raise Awareness, Improve the health, Prevent disease.

Benefits- Individuals- live longer, awareness of health issues, improved fitness, increased self esteem.

Society- Save NHS money, decreased disease rates, healthier population.

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Health promotions

Health promotion models/approaches

Biomedical- immunisations to create herd immunity etc

Advantages- Trust in medical proffesion, free, prevent illness

Disadvantages- Costly, specialist staff, relies on compliance

Educational/behavioural- Provides information in order to change behaviour

e.g. change4life campaign

Advantages- low costs, does not tell people what to do

Disadvantages- Can lower self esteem, may be ignored, short term

Societal- Where legislation is used to make unhealthy options illegal e.g. smoking ban 

Advantages- applies to all, costs less, long term

Disadvantages- No freedom of choice

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