Growth of Opposition to Tsarism 1906-14

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Tsar's Repressive Policies

  • To deal with most opposition the Okhrana was used to temporarily silence them, although this opposition would quickly return filled with more anger towards the Tsar
  • Tsar also used a policy of Russifacation in which any non-Russian communities would give up their cultures and languages for a Russian one- many communities did not like this and so opposition grew
  • Tsar used pogroms aimed at persecuting Russian Jews- once again people did not like this causing opposition towards the Tsar
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Workers and peasant opposition

  • Industrialisation scheme the Russian Govt. used on the workers led to heavy taxation and exploitation of the workers
  • Their working conditions once deteriorated and as a result after 1908, strikes and protests at frustration towards the Tsar was all very much common again
  • Stolypin tried to appease the peasants and while it worked for a while it did not stay forever- a series of bad harvests after the land reforms once again led to food shortages and then another inflation crisis
  • Creation of the Kulaks resulted in unrest and tension between the peasantry classes, again leading to opposition towards Nicholas II and the regime
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Treatment of the Dumas

  • October Manifesto allowed for the creation of Dumas and between 1906-1914 there were four Dumas which were dismissed
  • Duma One: Set up in 1906 lasted, three months due to failure of Russia experimenting with a constitution which resulted in arguing over a parliament with no real power and any laws wished to be passed were rejected by the Tsar, Duma dissolved through Fundamental Laws
  • Duma Two: 1907, opposition from SRs and SDs- accused of subversion and so Nicholas dissolved the Duma in June 1907
  • Duma Three: Lasted five years and then dissolved
  • Duma Four: Lasted two years with no real purpose other than its members continually opposing the Tsar
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Dismissal of Ministers

  • Stolypin’s rule led to 1144 executions in 1907 to remove any opposition- this was known as Stolypin’s necktie
  • The Tsar then dismissed Stolypin along with Witte
  • Many people could not understand this as they thought they were good ministers 
  • Stolypin was then assassinated in 1911
  • WW1 then came about and opposition relaxed and the Tsar ruled on for four more years
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