George, Duke of Clarence
George, Duke of Clarence, was the brother of Edward IV:
- George was an unstable and overambitious.
- George openly opposed Edward's marriage and resented the Woodville's influence of court.
- Clarence also shared Warwick's anger over the way the Woodvilles' involvement in the marriage market.
Alienation of Clarence
Clarence was alienated because:
- Clarence was fearful of losing his priveleged status at court, so he turned to Warwick for support.
- Therefore, it was agreed that Clarence should marry Warwick's eldest daughter Isabel. Clarence and Warwick began to plot the destruction of the Woodvilles and downfall of the King, as they blamed the Queen and her brother Anthony Rivers for the refusal.
- However, the King refused.
- In Calais, Warwick and Clarence took command of the garrison (standing army), and issued a manifesto which outlined their grievances and intentions of getting rid of the 'evil' advisors to edward IV.
- Clarence married Warwick's daughter, to seal the alliance, and they returned to England in July 1469, and they defeated Edward's supporters at Edgecote.
- Warwick captured Edward IV, making his attempt to govern England a failure.
- As a result, there was an economic crisis and an increase of disorder which threatened to topple him.
- Edward was released from custody.
- It became clier that Warwick would never be Edward;s chief adviser again.
Why was Edward vulnerable 1468-69
Edward IV was vulnerable in 1468-69 because:
- There was a lack of prosperity, due to economic problems and the public feeling.
- There were taxes collected for war, which was not fought.
- Edward had limited committed support from nobles.
- Disorder was increased.
- Henry VI was still an alternative King.
- There was a revival of Lancastrian plots.
- There was the possibility of French invasion.
- Courtiers were unpopular, especially for heavy lordship.
Evidence supporting that Edward was to blame for t
Edward IV was to blame for the rebellion because:
- He got married to Elizabeth Woodville, which humiliated Warwick (who wanted Edward to marry his daughter).
- Edward promoted the Woodvilles which allowed them to take control of the marriage market.
- The Burgundian alliance created by Edward annoyed Warwick, as he wanted him to create an alliance with France.
- Edward did not exceute Henry VI when he had the chance, as he could have been put back on the throne.
- Edward also refused to agree with Clarence's marriage with Warwick's daughter.
Evidence supporting Warwick was to blame for the R
Warwick was to blame for the rebellion because:
- As a result of Edward's marriage with Elizabeth, Warwick withdrew his services to Edward, and did not forget about it.
- Warwick wanted an alliance with France.
- Warwick was egotistic and arrogant.
- He went against the king's wishes, by letting Clarence marry his daughter anyway.
Warwick's Rebellion and Restoration of Henry VI
- At the defeat of his forces at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, Edward waited for another opportunity to strike.
- Edward raised an army and attacked the rebels at Empingham, in early `470.
- The King's forces were victorious.
- The defeated rebels shed their coats.
- Therefore, Edward was back in control.
- Warwick and George fled to France to make an alliance with Margaret of Anjou.
- Louis XI managed to persuade Warwick, Clarence and Margaret to join forces.
- Margaret's son Prince Edward married Warwick's youngest daughter Anne, to seal the alliance.