Agricultural change, i.e. farming industry decline, due to increase in foreign imports; Ageing Population, leading to a Brain Drain, as youths leave Cornwall to continue further education, and don't return; Seasonal Income, tourism is seasonal, and this also induces a Lack of Affordable Housing; Mining Industrydecline, as better raw materials found abroad. Poor Infrastructure public transport is infrequent and services and facilities are poor compared to urban areas. Economic Deprivation most rural areas are poorest in country
Farm Diversification farmers can gain further income, through offering facilities such as camp-sites, b&b, sheep racing like in North Devon; Festivals such as Glastonbury; Promoting Local Produce cuts out the middle man, better income, such as Devon Cream and Stoud (a food town); Heritage Tourism encourages people to visit in relation with particular interest such as in poetry or music; Recreation Rural Energy, Technology developing infrastructure, such as Broadband, to encourage businesses to relocate such as Dipsticks Research, Northumberland
RURAL REBRANDING EXAMPLE
is poorest county in England, GDP is 62% of England Average
Objective One Funding, Cornwall receives financial assistance from European Social Fund
Eden Project, opened in 2001, 2 million visitors in 1st year, made use of the disuses clay mine. Employs 400 p/a all locally, catalysed further projects such as the Eden Marathon and Thai Peace Gardens. increased number of visitors to area induces multiplier effect, is not seasonal, open all year round. Increased annual Income generating an extra £81million p/a. sustainable project, doesn't require maintenance for 25 years.
Key Players: EU, Cornwall Heritage Trust, Millennium Commission
Suburbanisation as cities get more expensive and congested, people migrate into suburbs; Factories Closed/Shift in Industry shift from primary industry such as factory work to tertiary industries like banking; Improve Environment and be sustainable often air quality and pollution is poor in cities due to high levels of vehicles, green spaces are minimal, more people attracted to area if have better green space; Perception (re-image) some urban areas fall into a Spiral of Decline as jobs are lost from factories people resort to crime, making the area appear unsafe; Expensive due to very high end jobs, price of living and housing is exponential in urban areas, leaving poorer people at a disadvantage
Flagship Developments this developments attract media and public attention such as Burj Al Kalifa, Dubai, the tallest building in the world; 24 Hour Cities encourage a new type of city life, such as New York City; Waterfront Regeneration previous disused docks have been rebranded, such as London Docklands, Canary Wharf; Heritage Tourism normally industrial archaelogy such as Bradford; Sustainable Cities mainly an environmental focus to improve the EQ of an area for the future aswell such as Curitiba, Brazil; Sport/Art/Culture Focus often used as a catalyst for further rebranding, such as London 2012 Olympics
URBAN REBRANDING example
LONDON DOCKLANDS, CANARY WHARF
previously a docks for shipping cargo, due to the increase in size and effects of Containerisation boats could no longer fit down the Thames, so docks become redundant. Massive loss of jobs, but as these people were low skilled they did not benefit from rebranding of the area due to the shift to tertiary and quaternary industries, 90,000 jobs created in that field, with high rise towers hosting very important businesses such as HSBC and Citigroup. This area has thrived due to increased land price in London town centre, many businesses have relocated further afield to Canary Wharf instead.
De industrialised, loss of employment and economic activity. Urban rebranding policies have been top-down, so neglected local opinion, and have been unsuccessful and insufficient. residents are very low skilled with 45% having no qualifications so any new high end tertiary industries would not benefit locals, no financial or social availability, is an example of a fail of rebranding and a low cost benefit analysis for that area, so is unlikely to be rebranded in future.
URBAN REBRANDING examples
LONDON 2012 OLYMPIC GAMES
Benefit the derelict area of East London, leaving a key legacy of national benefits in culture, sport, volunteering, business and tourism. Create 9,000 new affordable homes, with world class sports facilities available to the public and improved transport links. Huge influx in visitor numbers over the course of the games will lead to the multiplier effect. Olympic Park transformed into one of the largest urban parks in Europe improving biodiversity of area too (environmental benefit). 50,000 permanent jobs created in all areas, and training for locals will improve future aspect of the area.
Used culture and existing identity in car manufacturing to drive regeneration of the area to attract investment and tourism. Refined quality of the city, with more green spaces and improved links and connections. Symphony Hall to highlight culture.China Town which focussed diversifying the area and creating a niche for tourists. Finally the £530million flagship development of the Bullring (shopping complex) which in the 1st year saw 36 million visitors.
URBAN REBRANDING examples
SUSTAINABLE CITY: CURITIBA AND LEICESTER
Curitiba is an example of a bottom-up approach. schemes include good recycling and transportation developments, which harness low-technology approaches, so the projects are low-cost, people centred, simple and based on local initiatives and skills. Bus system is used rather then a metro, and 75% or commuters use it daily.
Leicester is a top-down example of a sustainable city. became uk's first Environment City in 1990 and one the European Sustainability award in 1996. Schemes were recycling, grey water reuse, energy efficiency, tree planting, protection of wildlife habitats.
CULTURAL CITY: LIVERPOOL
European Capital of Culture in 2008. This title is expected to attract more tourists, increase investment and create jobs, as well as boost the profile of the winning city. Further investment and tourists will be attracted to Liverpool due to the flagship projects of the Walker Art Gallery and many other cultural interests.
Seasonal Income as coastal economies rely on the income from the tourist industry, this is seasonal and decreasing due to competition from abroad destinations; Decline in Traditional Industries fishing and other traditional industries have declined leading to reduced income; Migrant Labour induces low wages, which also increases unemployment rate for locals; Physical Location the location is only accessed from one direction and tend to be remote and hard to get too.
Not long ago, was a thriving holiday destination. the competition of foreign holidays with cheap packages in 1980's decreased the number. Due to this decrease in visitors, jobs have decreased, number of registered businesses dropped 6%. and unemployment stands at 7%. the average GDP in Blackpool is 77% UK average. the Super Output Areas of Blackpool most of them are in the top 10% of deprived areas nationally. schemes to rebrand include the development into a super casino complex and a £500million scheme to build 'storm city'