Population Policies- China One Child Policy
- Sucesses- Cut population, improved attitude to having a daughter, women get better jobs and have careers, more wealth mean people can afford to pay to have more children.
- Problems- Gender imbalance (60million more men than women), looking after elderly parents alone, lots of young women yet to have child.
- Changes After 1990- Relaxing the one child policy, chose to have 2 if you are an only child, governers must only have 1 child to set a good example, gender imbalance; still need more girls.
Population Policies- India, Kerala Policy
- Sucesses- Cut population, better education, health care and benefits.
- Problems- Costs alot of money to introduce and reinforce.
- Similarities and Differences- Smaller families are better for both those in Kerala and China. In China there are benefits for sticking to the rules and fines for breaking them. Kerala uses a much nicer technique of enforcing there policies- using family planning, education, retirement and healthcare benefits and paid maternity leave for first two children. In China they also have health and education benefits, pay rises and better education but these also stop and you get heavily fined if you have an unaloud second child. They also use "granny police" to help enforce the policy and reduce child birth.
Managing an Ageing Population- The UK
Effects of Ageing Population on:-
- Healthcare- More nursing homes for elderly, more NHS money going towards caring for the elderly.
- Taxation- Higher taxes, possible pension taxes.
- Retirement Age- Retirement age raised so pension is paid for less amount of time.
- Transport- Bus passes for elderly, less for younger people.
- Housing- More bungalows, nursing and retirement homes and retirement flats.
Managing an Ageing Population- The UK 2
Effects of Ageing Population on:-
- Birth Rate- Declines, government will try to get bigger families.
- Leisure Facilities- More for elderly e.g. bowles and less for young people.
- Eastbourne Borough Council (lots of elderly)- lowered pavements for elderly, beepers and "bobbly" pavements at traffic lights.
- Political Parties- Try to guarantee votes from the larger pension population
- Retail Sector- More tea/ coffee shops, more charity shops, more shops for the elderly demographic, more shops locally in town centers.
How Rich Countries Cope with Changing Population-
- -Increase workforce by encouraging immigration of young adults from poorer countries.
- -Give financial rewards to couples having more children.
- -Raise retirement age so people stay in work longer, continue to pay taxes, so receive pensions for shorter amounts of time.
- -Make workers pay higher taxes to pay higher pensions and have a greater social securities.
- -Abolish state pensions and make people pay for their own pensions.
Migration- Slovakia to the UK
Benefits- Higher wage prospects, send £1billion home each year to Slovakia, Get higher pay in the UK than Slovakia, 1/4 million out of 5million Slovaks live abroad, 59% say they will only stay abroad for less than 3months.
Problems- 250,000 people leave each year per year, many never go back and have their families abroad, they have low paid, low skill level jobs, elderly left behind, drained of skill in home country e.g. healthcare proffesionals and the dependent population is left behind.
Urban Land Use Models- Burgess
Concentric Circles With CBD in the center, going out through Industry, into low class residential, then medium class residential out on to the urban- rural fringe and the high class residential.
Urban Land Use Models- Hoyt
CBD is at the center with Industry and different classes of housing coming out the CBD along transport routes such as roads and train lines, with low class housing close to industry and upper class housing up wind and away from industry
Urban Land Use Models- Mann
A mixture of Hoyt's and Burgess's models with concentric circles and sectors, CBD in center and this drawing also shows dormitory towns on the outside where commuters will travel to the main town for work will come from- will contain upper class housing.
LEDC- Housing the Urban Poor- Rio de Janeiro, Roch
- There are 750 favelas in Rio
- 20% of Rios population live in favelas
- 33% of the worlds population live in Spontaneous Settlements
- Estimated population= 200,000
- Rochina started in 1940's
- It is unpoliced.
- After 10yrs tenants can claim ownership of land.
- In the 50's and 60's the land was cleared, but the residents kept going back.
MEDC- Housing in Birmingham UK
- Council Housing- Chelmsley Wood
- High Rise Flats- Yardley, Edgbaston and High gate
- Inner City Housing- Moseley, Selly Oak and Kings Norton.
- New Towns- Redditch, (or Telford/ Milton Keys)
- Commuter Villages- Barnt Green, Bromsgrove.
- Brownfield Sites- Been previously built on e.g. Old Garringtons site.
- Greenfield Sites- Fields never been built on e.g. Hanbury.
MEDC- Traffic In Birmingham UK
What Have they Done to keep Traffic Moving?
- More train Stations e.g. New street, Moor street and Snow Hill stations.
- M6 toll, must pay to use and avoid Birmingham traffic, M6, M5, M40, M42, circle Birmingham.
- Aston Express Way- Tidal Road. A38- Through Road. A4540- Inner Ring Road.
- Lesiure facilities on outside e.g. NEC, Great Park, Star City, Villa Park.
- Queensway underpass- Saves space and Park and Ride system.
Mass Tourism Jamaica
- Main Tourism Area's- Kingston, Port Maria
- Tourist Activities Include- Beaches/ Bathing areas, Museums, Hotels, Golf areas, Water sports.
- Advantages- Jobs (200,000 in tourist sector, 8% of the population), local businesses, more food production, better facilities for locals.
- Disadvantages- Seasonal, profit goes abroad, littler, decreased local production and imported Westernised goods increased e.g McDonalds.
Categories of Tourism- Italy
- Views- Alps, landscapes.
- Tourism- Venice/ Florence canals, Buildings.
- History- Rome, Pompeii, buildings.
- Coastal- Vernazza beach holidays.
- Culture- Art galleries, food, museums.
- Sight Seeing- Leaning tower of Pisa, Rome.
- Climate- Medditeranean, hot warm weather.
- Cheap, easily accessible, city breaks.
- Florence= Shops, Golden Statue.
- Rome= Colosseum, Roman remains, Vatican City.
- Milan= Fashion center, football, car making.
Tourism in Different Countries- Dubai
- Attracts tourism because it's hot all year around, big shopping malls, big, new buildings, get to see culture, duty free and you can do all the usual tourist things.
- Tourism benefits the local people and industry, those who own it and the hotels there. You pay tax as you enter and leave the country and infrastructure there has improved.
UK tourism- Blackpool
- Problems- Loss of families to cheap package holidays abroad. Hen/ Stag parties go there. Run down hotels.
- Attractions- Pleasure beaches, electric trams, illuminations, tower, piers, roller coasters, donkey rides, golden mile beach, casinos, arcades, horse and cart rides and ball room
- Reinvention- 'Strictly Come Dancing', catering for different markets, modern artwork on front, £81million spent over next 3years over 7miles of sea front, bigger and better modernised hotels, clean 'blue flag awarded' beaches, but failure to get Super Casino.
UK National Parks- Lake District
- Why would you want to go? Natural scenery, wildlife, ferry cruises, small boats, fishing trips, mountaineering, walking, climbing, café's, restaurant's, clubs, hotels, water sports, shopping, steam train rides, world of Beatrix Potter and William Wordsworth Cottage.
- Issues- Weather( wettest place in UK), Bad access when off the motor way in peak time driving through villages, parking near by is poor, damaged environment; litter,pollution, High house prices, protected land, lakes being damaged, Noise pollution from traffic, people, water sports.
- Solutions; Traffic- Dual carriage ways built on edge, distributor roads to small towns, options to go a "scenic" route, slow down traffic using speed limits and speed bumps, park and ride system. Foot Paths- Repair damage, encourage people to stay on footpaths, reinforce damaged surfaces, signpost routes. Parking- Fence side of roads, hide new car parks, reinforce car parks to prevent damage. Litter- Bins; emptied regularly, designated pic-nic areas, signs encouraging reduced litter.
Extreme Tourism- Antartica
- Why Visit There? Walking, husky dog rides, wildlife, kayaking, skiing, climbing, scuba-diving, helicopter/ plane rides over, Southern lights, scenery and History.
- What type of people visit? Middle- aged, rich, thrill seekers, who want something new and don't mind sleeping rough and doing various activities.
- How many people visit there? Increasing popularity in 1950's but started commercially in 1969. 9000 tourists went in 1999-93. This has grown to 37,000 in 2006-07, and 46,000 in 2007-08.
- Issues and Problems- pollutions and impacts on wildlife, safety, overcrowding, research stations there expanding, infrastructure damaging land scape, light, noise and heat pollution.
- Solutions- Controlling number of tourists going and ship size, tour operators must be a member of IAATO body.
Eco tourism- Galapagos Islands
- Location and History- 50 Volcanic islands, 1,000km off coast of South America, Pacific Ocean, Where Darwin came up with the theory of evolution. 90% of the Islands are national parks, became a Unesco world heritage site.
- How does tourism benefit? £25 from each cruise goes to conservation, 10-16 tourists at any one time.
- Local economy and people- Services provided by locals, stay in family run guests homes, locals provided as tour guides, and in tourist industry, tips go directly to local people.
- Issues- Impact on environment still, animals could be harmed.