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Geography Content Notes

Human Geography

Population Change

Population Introduction...

Demography: Study of population
Basic Demographic Equation: Total population = Natural Change + net migration

Demographic Transition Model
The demographic transition model describes how the population of a country changes over
time. It plots changes in birth and death rates and…

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Explanation of model
Stage 1
A period of high birth rate and high death rate, both with fluctuate.
Reasons for high birth rate include:
o Limited birth control
o High infant mortality rate-encourages birth of children
o Children are a future source of income
o Some religions encourage large families…

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Stage 4
A period of low birth rate and low death rate, both which fluctuate
Population growth is still small and fertility continues to fall
Life expectancy is high, more people are living to be older
People come more materialistic (less money for children)

Stage 5
A period during with…

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Stage 3
Rapidly falling birth rate
Falling death rate
High population growth

Stage 4
Low birth rate
Low death rate
Population growth = 0

Stage 5
Falling birth rate
Low death rate
Negative population growth

Independent population: People, who work, earn money and pay tax
Dependant population: People who depend…

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Technology improves yields and saves on labour
This frees workers for industry
Technological advance reduces the need for labour, making smaller families more

Rural to urban migration is common in poorer countries
One major reason is to seek better education and opportunities for children
Children's labour is less…

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Ageing population: a population with a high proportion of older people

Reasons for an ageing population
Increased longevity
Due to: Advances in health and medical care
Better nutrition and diet

Falling birth rates
Due to: Women having fewer children and later in life
Increased use of contraception
Emancipation of women…

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Push and Pull Factors
Push Factors Pull Factors
High unemployment at home Learn better English
Low wages in Poland High wages for same profession
Fed up with `way of life' There is work available
New government- new laws More freedom
Not lazy, prepared to do jobs

Effects of migration

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o Physical- after a natural disaster
o Human- after a war or revolution
o Economic- for work and improved living standards
o Social- retirement or meeting family and friends

Refugees: people unwilling to return to their homeland for the fear of persecution,
based on reasons of…

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Urbanisation Introduction...

Urbanisation: the increasing percentage of people who live in urban areas

Reasons for urbanisation
Developed countries
Agricultural revolution ­ mechanisation meant less people needed to work so
they moved from rural areas
Industrial Revolution- Lots of jobs created in factories which were in the cities so

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Urban Land Use...

How is land used?
Public services

Urban land use model

Central Business District
Tall buildings and skyscrapers
Largest offices and shops
Widest variety of goods on sale
Main place for work
Accessible location
Good transport links


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