GCSE Geography, Human Notes

These are my notes for aqa human geography, paper 2

The topis are: Tourism, population and changing urban environements

Hope they help!

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  • Created by: Jenny
  • Created on: 18-06-12 11:23
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Geography Content Notes
Human Geography
Population Change
Population Introduction...
Demography: Study of population
Basic Demographic Equation: Total population = Natural Change + net migration
Demographic Transition Model
The demographic transition model describes how the population of a country changes over
time. It plots changes in birth and death rates and shows that countries through five stages of

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Explanation of model
Stage 1
A period of high birth rate and high death rate, both with fluctuate.…read more

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Stage 4
A period of low birth rate and low death rate, both which fluctuate
Population growth is still small and fertility continues to fall
Life expectancy is high, more people are living to be older
People come more materialistic (less money for children)
Stage 5
A period during with the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate
Causes populating decline
Reasons for low birth rate:
o Rise in individualism, linked to more women working
o Greater financial independence of women
o Rise in the…read more

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Stage 3
Rapidly falling birth rate
Falling death rate
High population growth
Stage 4
Low birth rate
Low death rate
Population growth = 0
Stage 5
Falling birth rate
Low death rate
Negative population growth
Independent population: People, who work, earn money and pay tax
Dependant population: People who depend on other e.g.…read more

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Technology improves yields and saves on labour
This frees workers for industry
Technological advance reduces the need for labour, making smaller families more
Rural to urban migration is common in poorer countries
One major reason is to seek better education and opportunities for children
Children's labour is less valued in cities than in rural areas
Increased educational achievement means increased standards of living
Children become an economic disadvantage
Fewer children = more money to spend on one = better future chances
Emancipation…read more

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Ageing population: a population with a high proportion of older people
Reasons for an ageing population
Increased longevity
Due to: Advances in health and medical care
Better nutrition and diet
Falling birth rates
Due to: Women having fewer children and later in life
Increased use of contraception
Emancipation of women
Retirement migration: retired people moving to more rural areas or to the coastline
for a slower pace of life
Problems and opportunities of an ageing population
A high concentration of older people in one…read more

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Push and Pull Factors
Push Factors Pull Factors
High unemployment at home Learn better English
Low wages in Poland High wages for same profession
Fed up with `way of life' There is work available
New government- new laws More freedom
Not lazy, prepared to do jobs
Effects of migration
Positive Impacts Negative Impacts
Source country Reduced demand on Labour
services shortage-working
Money is sent back, people emigrate
boosting their Skills shortage-
economy highly educated
More jobs available people emigrate
Reduced pressure on Leave a dependant…read more

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o Physical- after a natural disaster
o Human- after a war or revolution
o Economic- for work and improved living standards
o Social- retirement or meeting family and friends
Refugees: people unwilling to return to their homeland for the fear of persecution,
based on reasons of race, religion, ethnicity or political opinion or those forcibly
displaced by others
Asylum Seekers: formal application of a refugee to reside in the country…read more

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Urbanisation Introduction...…read more

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Urban Land Use...…read more


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