General Health and Social

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Benefits of fostering:

  • Regular meals
  • Someone to talk to
  • Daily routines
  • Personal and environmental hygiene
  • Have needs met
  • Emotional Support
  • Removed from stress

Poor appetite in foster children

  • Ill
  • Grieving for death of parent
  • Unsettled in strange surroundings
  • Lacking love
  • Abused
  • Aniety/confusion about the situation
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Factors which might affect the development of lang

• Being spoken to regularly 

• Able to listen/not hearing impaired 

• Sufficient stimulation/toys/books 

• Presence/Absence of learning disabilities 

• Happy, stable environment 

• Absence of physical difficulties/speech defect 

• Encouragement 

• Emotional shock/crisis 

• Self esteem/confidence/self concept 

• Not or being told to be quiet 

• Left alone to play for long periods 

• Poor socialisation 

• Having a different first language

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Skills that may be developed through a successful

• Physically fit and able

• Preparation of healthy meals 

• Participate in forms of exercise with children 

• Understand the needs of children 

• Sense when unhappy/ill 

• Know the developmental stages 

• Positive self concept/self esteem/self image 

• Loving personality/ emotional support 

• Good organisation/ problem solver/adaptable/flexible 

• Enhanced social skills 

• Admit mistakes 

• Ready to seek help from social worker 

• Tolerant and non-judgmental/patience 

• Good communicator/listener

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Short term effects of alcohol

• Personal and child neglect 

• Poor hygiene 

• Slurred speech/incoherence 

• Headache/hangover 

• Stumbling gait/clumsy/accident prone 

• Argumentative/quarrelsome 

• Reduced inhibitions/overconfidence 

• Mood change/happy/ sad/depressed 

• Forgetfulness/loss of concentration/confusion 

• Slow reaction times 

• Nausea /vomiting/passing out 

• Blurred vision 

• Increased heart rate/palpitations 

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Changes of Socialisation in foster care

• Family rules may be very different 

• Values may be different 

• Peers/ teachers will have changed 

• School/ surroundings may have changed 

• Faith may be different/more or less. 

• May transfer bonding to foster carers and reject mother 

• Emotional development affected/changes secondary socialisation

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How living on a lower income may affect the childr

• Change to a different home/ poor area 

• Further interruption to education likely 

• Less luxuries/toys/computer games/holidays 

• Dietary change to cheaper less healthy foods 

• Less exercise due to less activities 

• Family less healthy 

• Possibility of bullying 

• Not able to keep up with trends 

• Mother may have to work so more responsibility the person

• More substance abuse 

• Less happy overall 

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Hostilic definition

Hostilic definition:

Appreciation that this means viewing the person as a whole taking into account their culture, background, beliefs, living situation as well as their physical, emotional and social needs. 

Another Defintion for health:

Personal, where an individual deems themselves to be healthy when they can achieve a task for example or meet aspirations 

Negative view of health is when the focus is on an absence of disease or illness 

Positive view of health focuses on personal and physical capabilities together with social and emotional well-being.

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Health Promotion appraches


• adoption of healthier lifestyles by providing information (education)  

• to change behaviour 

• freedom of informed choice 

• May be short term 

 Bio Medical

• focus on preventing disease by immunisations/ screening 

• carried out by professionals 

• choose to turn up. 


• political action to change the physical or social environment 

• laws 

• no freedom of choice 

• long term solution 

• sanctions necessary 

• May produce rebels.

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Self esteem and Self concept

Self concept is the understanding we have of ourselves. A learned idea of how we are distinct from other people. Self concept is said to be postitive or negative, not high or low. A persons self concept can change as he or she progresses through life. 

Self concept is said to be part of self esteem and part self-image. Self- esteem is how you value (or feel about) yourself and self image is how you see yourself. 

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How unemployment may have affect self-concept

Increased/maintain self concept/Positive

• Time to fully prepare for any interviews /learn new skills / feels he has done his best

• Has time to meet with friends/meet new people/develop socially/ makes him feel good

• Many other people in same position so self esteem maintained

• Able to claim benefits to live on

Decreased self concept/Negative 

• Feels dependent on state handouts 

• May feel depressed 

• Feels rejected/ worthless/isolated/discriminated against 

• Angry/resentful/disappointed 

• Low self esteem/ low self image/doesn’t feel good / sees self as failure 

• No money for clothes/leisure/luxuries 

• May be tempted/get into trouble

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Advantages and disadvantages of full-time educatio


• Can progress/Higher education/purpose in life 

• Secure a better job with more money eventually 

• Make a new circle of friends 

• Raise self esteem/self concept 

• Become more confident 

• Enhance cognitive skills / communication skills 

• Join in other activities eg sport 


• Worry that a job that he wants comes after he starts 

• Anxiety about his intellectual/practical skills/ integrating  

• Still might be unemployed after college 

• Levels of debt he might incur 

• Lose benefits 

• Anxiety about living expenses 

• Ties him up for a long time

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Problems which can affect work


• Stress / irritable with people 

• Lack of sleep / tired / can’t be bothered / inefficient 

• Vulnerable to infection / time off work 

• Weight loss / gain / altered self image 


• Angry / resentful (anti-men) / judgemental

• Sad / tearful / work problems have greater effect

• Lowered self-esteem / image/concept / lack of leadership

• Withdrawn emotionally / depressed / unhelpful

• Disinclined to talk / unhelpful


• Lonely / isolated

• Doesn’t go out 

• Withdrawn socially (withdraws from social activities involved with work) 


• Unable to concentrate/ distracted / inefficient/ lower work performance 

• Makes mistakes / inefficient 

• Loss of interest in work / can’t be bothered 

• Bias/distorted perspective/inappropriate advice

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Stress effects


• Adrenaline release, high blood pressure, heart disease 

• Digestive disorders, diarrhoea, ulcers 

• Palpitations, tachycardia (rapid heart rate) 

• Skin disorders 

• Sleeplessness 

• Vulnerability to infection 

• Headaches/migraines 

• Loss/gaining weight 


• Panic attacks 

• Anxiety 

• Neuroses 

• OCD (obsessive compulsory disorder) 

• Depression 

• Tiredness due to sleeplessness 

• Irritability 

• Anger/aggression 

• Low self image/esteem/concept 

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National health promotion campaign

• To prevent a spread throughout the country 

• Raise awareness and educate / signs and symptoms 

• To reduce a potential death toll 

• To relieve pressure on the NHS 

• To raise confidence in the government 

• Give advice on what to do / ways to increase personal hygiene

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Swine Flu government criticism

The UK government has been criticised for not being effective enough in raising awareness of public health issues:

• To inform people ( leaflets to every home) or not at all 

• To run adverts emphasising what to do or not  

• Publish up-to-date statistics or not 

• Make the issue transparent or cover up 

• Reinforce government guidance regularly or not 

• Hold the DOH to account or not 

• Criticism when facilities such as helplines are not ready 

• Review strategies regularly or not  

• Publicise personal stories or ignore 

• Keep public vigilant or lose impact 

• Issues not treated equally e.g. compare swine flu to HIV 

• Resources unequal for different campaigns 

• After an initial campaign, issues tend to be forgotten e.g HIV 

• Scarcity of vaccine  

• Bureaucracy  

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Media Influence on health promotion


• Raise awareness of expectation/presence of swine flu 

• Speed of message 

• Most individuals heard the message  

• TV adverts reached majority of population even if they didn’t read leaflets 

• Funding was not an issue even in recession 

• Helplines set up 

• Internet was used to direct people to drug collection centres 

• People told to get a flu buddy 

• Publicise personal stories e.g. celebrities 


• Many were scared even though it was a mild illness overall 

• Vulnerable people like pregnant women were unsure what to do 

• Reported side effects (eg Tamiflu) often worse than illness 

• Individuals were still visiting the GP even when they were told not to. 

• Helplines were delayed starting 

• Helplines staffed by unqualified people reading from a sheet 

• Other illnesses like meningitis were missed 

  • Older people living alone had little access to internet or flu buddies
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