GCSE PE - Unit 6

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Risk Assessment

There are many rules in sports to minimise risk of injury.
There not in place only for safety of you but safety of others aswell.

Risk Assesmnet is where all the possible dangers are looked at and actions to be carried out if an accident did happen.

In contact sports there are 5 rules which catergorise you to make sure your opponent is of similar ability.

5 rules are...

  • Age
  • Weight
  • Ability
  • Gender
  • Grading (black) 
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Risk Assessment - 2

Contact Sports thre are many physical injuries that could happen such as concussion, broken bones and soft tissue injuries.

In racquet sports the racquet could be let go off and fly and hit someone.

Warm up and Cool down prevent injuries as they make tendoms more flexible. Stretching muscles loosens them and reduces chance of injury.

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Risk Assessment - Clothing


Clothing needs to be checked to make sure it is not going to endanger the competitior or others.

Clothing needs to be...

  • Good order (not ripped/broken)
  • Not catch on equipment
  • Ensure performer can see
  • Allow free movement 

You should not wear loose clothing in trampolining to get rid of the chance it gets stuck in the springs.

In outdoor education you should wear warmth and waterproof clothing.

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Risk Assessment - Footwear

It is important to wear the correct footwear for the event you are taking part in. Footwear has been designed with performers safety in mind.

Basket Ball trainers have been developed to give ankle supportand cushioning to prevent joint injuried when jumping and landing.

Climbing shoes are tight to the foot and have a very grippy sole. it is grippy in all weathers this is important incase it rains when your high up.

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Risk Assessment - Protective Equipment

Protective equipment is compulsory in many sports, they are worn to stop any breakages or damge to the human body.

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Referees and Umpires

Each game has its own set of rules. They were written to make the game more fairer

Job of the referee

  • Ensure safety
  • Fair Play
  • Game is played by rules
  • Prevent cheating
  • Check equipment

Players have a responsibility to act within the laws of the games.

Howverer if they dont referees can take further action (e.g. card them)

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Posture - Sitting

  • Straight Back
  • Back support
  • Feet on floor
  • Knees higher than hips
  • Desk at correct hight
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Posture - Lifting

  • Back straight
  • Bend with knees
  • Head up
  • Lift weight close to you
  • Avoid lifting higher than elbows
  • DONT turn/twist
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Types of Injury

Internally caused - caused when a performer is totally responsible

Overuse injuries - caused by training or performing too much (e.g. stress fracture)

Sudden injuries - lots of strain placed on the body (e.g. hamstring pull)

Exterally caused - caused by another player, equipment or playing conditions

Foul play or incorrect technique - rules to stop these from occuring

Impact injuries - impact with another player or equipment

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Minor Injuries


  • Vary in size
  • Caused by sharp objects
  • Need to be dealt with quickly
  • Made clean before you do anything with it
  • Dress with plaster or bandage
  • Stitches may be needed


  • Caused by impact injuries
  • Blood vessels become damaged beneath the skin - they turn black/purple
  • Ice needs to be added to it

Pulled Muscles - Strain

  • RICE to deal with it
  • Over stretching and tearing  
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Joint and muscle injuries

Joint and muscle injuries that occur in sport are strains and sprains

What is the difference between a strain and a sprain?

Sprain is overstrethcing or tearing of ligaments at a joint.

Strain is overstretching of muscle at a joint.

 - Overstretching of muscles
 - You can overstretch when you twist muscle
 - Happens in muscles in the body
 - You can avoid by warming up thoroughly
 - If you have a strain you must RICE

 - Overstretchig of ligamnets at a joint
 - You can overstretch ligaments when you change direction or land badly
 - Happens to humans mostly in ankle or wrists
 - You must rice but serious cases may need an x-ray 

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Treatment for Soft Tissue injuries

Soft tissue injuries - bruises, strains, sprains

A treatment called RICE is used to help recover

R est - stop straight away and rest injury

I ce - reduces swelling and relieves some pain

C ompression - put on a bandage to support and pressure the injured area

E levation - raise the injured part to decrease circulation and drain fluids away

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Broken Bones - Fractures

Fractures occur when an excessive impact or force is put on a bone.

How do we recognise a fracture?

  • Broken bones
  • occurs in upper and lower limbs
  • Snapping sound can be heard
  • Pain in area or shape is abnormal
  • Considerable swelling
  • See a bone sticking out

Action to be taken?

  • Keep casualty still and calm
  • Support injury
  • Reassure casualty
  • Send for maedical help
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Occurs when a joint is knocked out of its sockes/normal position


  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Joint doesnt look right


  • If bone doesnt pop back into place
  • Take them to hospital
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A person may suffer concussion after a violent blow to the head.

Concussion is most likely in contact sports.

Concussion is where the brain knocks against the skull, this causes tearing of structure and blood vessels of the brain. Causes breakdown of messages from the brain


  • Headache
  • Feeling Sick
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion


  • Medical check
  • If serious put into recovery position
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