Garibaldi's early career 1807-49
- Early life.
- Disciple of Mazzini.
- Revolutions of 1848-49.
- The Roman Republic.
- The march to the coast.
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- Giuseppe Garibaldi was born a French citizen in Nice in 1807.
- He was only 8 years old when Nice became a part of Piedmont in the Congress Of Vienna in 1815.
- He met Mazzini in 1831 where he decided to become a nationaist.
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Disciple of Mazzini
- Mazzini was the founder of Young Italy - 1831.
- He believed that Italy should be free, independent and united.
- Believed that the peole should have a say in the government.
- Mazzinins greatest gift was inspiring others.
- His greatest follower was Garibaldi.
- He was quickly converted to the dream of a united Italy.
- Joined 'Young Italy' movement.
- 1833 became involved with Mazzinis revolutionary plans.
- This failed and he had to flee due to a death sentence.
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Revolutions of 1848-49
- Hearing rumours that there were revolutions in Italy, Garibaldi returned home.
- Accompanied by 60 of his men.
- Arrived in Nice.
- Offered military services to Charles Albert, King of Piedmont.
- King didn't trust Garibaldi so refused his offer.
- Nobody seemed to want or trust Garibaldi.
- Enlisted in the army of the revolutionary government of Milan in Lombardy.
- Charles Alberts army was defeated at Custoza before him and his men could get close to any action.
- An Austrian general later remarked that the one man who could have helped Piedmont win the 1848 war, they turned their backs on.
- Garibaldi believed that only Charles Albert had the resources and army to defeat Austria and unite Italy - he was wrong.
- Garibald abandoned the republican preference.
- Mazzini was hurt.
- Charles Albert failed at first to welcome his new follower.
- But Garibaldi was always thinking about finding a cause for Italian unity.
- But he could no way see that by attatching himself to Charles Albert that this is what would happen.
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The Roman Republic
- Roman Republic was declared in February 1849.
- Pope refused to make political changes to the government of Rome and was forced to escape from the city to saftey in Southern Italy.
- Republic was short lived.
- Survived for about four months.
- Lead by Mazzini.
- Under his influence, Rome had never been goverened.
- Garibaldi and the legionaries arrivedin Rome as teh city prepared.
- Garibaldi appeared a striking figure, aptrolling the city defences.
- Pope appealed to Austria and Spain for help.
- Louis Napoleon of France, came to help.
- French army arrived at the gates of Rome but were driven back.
- French reinforcments arrived.
- They were toostrong and at the beginning of July the Roman Republic fell to the soldiers of the French Republic.
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The march to the coast
- Assemdly appointed him as 'dictator' of Rome.
- He outlined possible actions to the Assembly:
- to surrender the city
- to continue fighting inside the city
- withdraw as many men as pissble towards Venetia where the Republic was still holding out against the Austrian army.
- He collected nearly 5000 men and forced to march towards the Adriatic coast.
- Over 800 kilometers.
- Only 1500 men reached the coast.
- Garibaldis wife died.
- Garibaldi escaped to Genoa where he was arrested but later freed on the condition that he left Italy straight away.
- He set sail across the Atlantic, this time for North America.
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Garibaldi and 'The Thousand'
- Exile and royal service 1849-59.
- The expedition to Sicily.
- Cavour's attitude.
- Success in Sicily.
- Governing Sicily.
- Cavour forestalls Garibaldi.
- Unification almost complete.
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Exile and royal service 1849-59
- Inherited some money from his brother.
- Bought half a small island off the coast of Sardinia.
- Took up farming there and was able to keep in touch with events in Italy through National Society.
- Worked for unification of Italy not as a republic but as a monarchy under the leadership of the King of Piedmont.
- Victor Emmanuel II was now King of Piedmont.
- He was much more politically able than he appeared and managed to keep on good terms with both Cavour and Garibaldi.
- Cavour was now chief minister.
- After the meeting with Napoleon III and Cavour at Plombieres in 1858, Cavour sent Garibaldi an invitation to visit Turin.
- Garibaldi was given detailsof the plans for forcing war on Austria in 1859.
- French and Piedmontese troops were able to conquer Lombardy.
- Garibaldis men played an important part in the fighting in Northern Italy.
- Victor Emmanuel was now King of all of Northern Italy apart from Venetia which was still under Austrian control.
- Nice and Savoy were now handed over to the French - bitter blow to Garibaldi as this was his birth place.
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The expedition to Sicily
- April 1860 - revolt started in Palermo in Sicily against the King Of Naples.
- Probably organised by followers of Mazzini.
- Garibaldi was working on how to get back Nice from France - blowing up balot boxes.
- Diverted from this plan by news of the revolt in Sicily.
- He began to collect more followers and by early May had a force of about 1200, they were known as 'The Thousand'.
- They were ready to sail in the port of Genoa.
- Ready to sail in the name of 'Italy and Victor Emmanuel'.
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- He thought that the expedition was unlikely to succeed.
- Was too rushed, number of men was too small and had poor resources.
- He didn't think it was a good idea either.
- He believed that Sicily, like most of the South, was poor and backward.
- Refused Garibaldis request for arms.
- Made it clear that it went without Piedmontese support.
- Later reports say that Cavour tried to convince Victor Emmanuel to arrest Garibaldi.
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Success in Sicily
- Landed in Sicily on May 11th.
- From Marsala they advanced to Palermo, the capital, gathering support on the way.
- They defeated a Neapolitian army.
- Numbering now about 3000.
- They reached Palermo at the end of May and found 20,000 enemy troops waiting for them.
- Garibaldo quickly took posession of Palermo.
- Island of Sicily was his.
- Speed of his success was mainly because of his bold stly of leadership.
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- Garibaldi appointed himself as 'dictator' of Sicily.
- Abolished tax collected on corn being milled to flour.
- Won support of peasants.
- But then he changed sides and lost support of the peasants.
- But won support of the landlords whos help he needed through restoring law and order.
- His obsession with a united Italy had led him to betray Mazzini's teaching about the importance of unsupporting the unprivalidged.
- He introduced Piedmontese laws into Sicily.
- Refused to hand over land to Victor Emmanuel for the moment.
- Cavour would be suprised at Garibaldi's success.
- Cavour would have prefered things done much more quietly and with more credit to Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel and himself.
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- Cavour was correct in his assumption that Garibaldi would next attempt to take Naples and then move northwards.
- He tried to arrange a revolution in Naples in favour of Victor Emmanuel but this failed.
- Tried to then give orders to Garibaldi to stop but he was far to quick for him.
- Although heavily outnumbered, Garibaldi fought his way north towards the city of Naples.
- His plan was to move northwards, to the Papal States and then to Rome, and so complete the geographical unification of Italy.
- Fcat that he was delayed in Naples gave Cavour time to act.
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Cavour forestalls Garibaldi
- Most pressing need was to stop Garibaldo from attacking Rome.
- Only way to do this was tosend an army from Piedmont to the Papal States to meet him before he could reach the city in Rome.
- Pope didn't want anyone to enter his territory.
- Piedmontese army, with Victor Emmaluel at its head matched through the Papal States.
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Unification almost complete
- Piedmontese army reached Neapolitan territory.
- Garibaldi abnd Victor Emmanuel met on October 26th.
- Garibaldi had no intention other than proving himself a loyal subject.
- He saluted Victor Emmanuel as 'the first King of Italy'.
- Handed over teritory to king.
- Ballots that were held showed an overwhelming wish for annexation by Piedmont.
- November 7th - Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel rode together in a triumphal state entry into Naples.
- Garibaldi handed over all his conquests to Victor Emmanuel.
- Garibaldi refused all titlesand rewards.
- He retired to his Island with a years supply of mararoni.
- All Italy expect from Rome and Venetia had been united under Victor Emmanuel and the constitution of Piedmont had been extended to the whole of the new Kingdom of Italy.
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