Garibaldi and Italy

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Garibaldi's early career 1807-49

  • Early life. 
  • Disciple of Mazzini.
  • Revolutions of 1848-49.
  • The Roman Republic.
  • The march to the coast.
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Early life

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi was born a French citizen in Nice in 1807.
  • He was only 8 years old when Nice became a part of Piedmont in the Congress Of Vienna in 1815. 
  • He met Mazzini in 1831 where he decided to become a nationaist. 
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Disciple of Mazzini

  • Mazzini was the founder of Young Italy - 1831. 
  • He believed that Italy should be free, independent and united.
  • Believed that the peole should have a say in the government. 
  • Mazzinins greatest gift was inspiring others. 
  • His greatest follower was Garibaldi. 
  • He was quickly converted to the dream of a united Italy. 
  • Joined 'Young Italy' movement. 
  • 1833 became involved with Mazzinis revolutionary plans. 
  • This failed and he had to flee due to a death sentence. 
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Revolutions of 1848-49

  • Hearing rumours that there were revolutions in Italy, Garibaldi returned home. 
  • Accompanied by 60 of his men.
  • Arrived in Nice.
  • Offered military services to Charles Albert, King of Piedmont. 
  • King didn't trust Garibaldi so refused his offer. 
  • Nobody seemed to want or trust Garibaldi. 
  • Enlisted in the army of the revolutionary government of Milan in Lombardy.
  • Charles Alberts army was defeated at Custoza before him and his men could get close to any action. 
  • An Austrian general later remarked that the one man who could have helped Piedmont win the 1848 war, they turned their backs on. 
  • Garibaldi believed that only Charles Albert had the resources and army to defeat Austria and unite Italy - he was wrong. 
  • Garibald abandoned the republican preference. 
  • Mazzini was hurt.
  • Charles Albert failed at first to welcome his new follower.
  • But Garibaldi was always thinking about finding a cause for Italian unity. 
  • But he could no way see that by attatching himself to Charles Albert that this is what would happen. 
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The Roman Republic

  • Roman Republic was declared in February 1849.
  • Pope refused to make political changes to the government of Rome and was forced to escape from the city to saftey in Southern Italy. 
  • Republic was short lived.
  • Survived for about four months. 
  • Lead by Mazzini. 
  • Under his influence, Rome had never been goverened. 
  • Garibaldi and the legionaries arrivedin Rome as teh city prepared.
  • Garibaldi appeared a striking figure, aptrolling the city defences. 
  • Pope appealed to Austria and Spain for help. 
  • Louis Napoleon of France, came to help. 
  • French army arrived at the gates of Rome but were driven back. 
  • French reinforcments arrived.
  • They were toostrong and at the beginning of July the Roman Republic fell to the soldiers of the French Republic. 
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The march to the coast

  • Assemdly appointed him as 'dictator' of Rome.
  • He outlined possible actions to the Assembly:

- to surrender the city

- to continue fighting inside the city

- withdraw as many men as pissble towards Venetia where the Republic was still holding out against the Austrian army.

  • He collected nearly 5000 men and forced to march towards the Adriatic coast. 
  • Over 800 kilometers.
  • Only 1500 men reached the coast.
  • Garibaldis wife died.
  • Garibaldi escaped to Genoa where he was arrested but later freed on the condition that he left Italy straight away. 
  • He set sail across the Atlantic, this time for North America. 
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Garibaldi and 'The Thousand'

  • Exile and royal service 1849-59.
  • The expedition to Sicily.
  • Cavour's attitude.
  • Success in Sicily.
  • Governing Sicily.
  • Naples.
  • Cavour forestalls Garibaldi. 
  • Unification almost complete.
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Exile and royal service 1849-59

  • Inherited some money from his brother. 
  • Bought half a small island off the coast of Sardinia.
  • Took up farming there and was able to keep in touch with events in Italy through National Society.
  • Worked for unification of Italy not as a republic but as a monarchy under the leadership of the King of Piedmont. 
  • Victor Emmanuel II was now King of Piedmont.
  • He was much more politically able than he appeared and managed to keep on good terms with both Cavour and Garibaldi.
  • Cavour was now chief minister. 
  • After the meeting with Napoleon III and Cavour at Plombieres in 1858, Cavour sent Garibaldi an invitation to visit Turin. 
  • Garibaldi was given detailsof the plans for forcing war on Austria in 1859. 
  • French and Piedmontese troops were able to conquer Lombardy.
  • Garibaldis men played an important part in the fighting in Northern Italy.
  • Victor Emmanuel was now King of all of Northern Italy apart from Venetia which was still under Austrian control. 
  • Nice and Savoy were now handed over to the French  - bitter blow to Garibaldi as this was his birth place. 
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The expedition to Sicily

  • April 1860 - revolt started in Palermo in Sicily against the King Of Naples. 
  • Probably organised by followers of Mazzini. 
  • Garibaldi was working on how to get back Nice from France - blowing up balot boxes.
  • Diverted from this plan by news of the revolt in Sicily. 
  • He began to collect more followers and by early May had a force of about 1200, they were known as 'The Thousand'.
  • They were ready to sail in the port of Genoa.
  • Ready to sail in the name of 'Italy and Victor Emmanuel'.
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Cavour's attitude

  • He thought that the expedition was unlikely to succeed. 
  • Was too rushed, number of men was too small and had poor resources. 
  • He didn't think it was a good idea either. 
  • He believed that Sicily, like most of the South, was poor and backward.
  • Refused Garibaldis request for arms.
  • Made it clear that it went without Piedmontese support. 
  • Later reports say that Cavour tried to convince Victor Emmanuel to arrest Garibaldi. 
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Success in Sicily

  • Landed in Sicily on May 11th. 
  • From Marsala they advanced to Palermo, the capital, gathering support on the way.
  • They defeated a Neapolitian army. 
  • Numbering now about 3000. 
  • They reached Palermo at the end of May and found 20,000 enemy troops waiting for them. 
  • Garibaldo quickly took posession of Palermo.
  • Island of Sicily was his.
  • Speed of his success was mainly because of his bold stly of leadership.
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Governing Sicily

  • Garibaldi appointed himself as 'dictator' of Sicily. 
  • Abolished tax collected on corn being milled to flour.
  • Won support of peasants.
  • But then he changed sides and lost support of the peasants. 
  • But won support of the landlords whos help he needed through restoring law and order. 
  • His obsession with a united Italy had led him to betray Mazzini's teaching about the importance of unsupporting the unprivalidged. 
  • He introduced Piedmontese laws into Sicily.
  • Refused to hand over land to Victor Emmanuel for the moment. 
  • Cavour would be suprised at Garibaldi's success. 
  • Cavour would have prefered things done much more quietly and with more credit to Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel and himself. 
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  • Cavour was correct in his assumption that Garibaldi would next attempt to take Naples and then move northwards. 
  • He tried to arrange a revolution in Naples in favour of Victor Emmanuel but this failed. 
  • Tried to then give orders to Garibaldi to stop but he was far to quick for him. 
  • Although heavily outnumbered, Garibaldi fought his way north towards the city of Naples. 
  • His plan was to move northwards, to the Papal States and then to Rome, and so complete the geographical unification of Italy. 
  • Fcat that he was delayed in Naples gave Cavour time to act. 
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Cavour forestalls Garibaldi

  • Most pressing need was to stop Garibaldo from attacking Rome. 
  • Only way to do this was tosend an army from Piedmont to the Papal States to meet him before he could reach the city in Rome. 
  • Pope didn't want anyone to enter his territory. 
  • Piedmontese army, with Victor Emmaluel at its head matched through the Papal States.
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Unification almost complete

  • Piedmontese army reached Neapolitan territory.
  • Garibaldi abnd Victor Emmanuel met on October 26th.
  • Garibaldi had no intention other than proving himself a loyal subject. 
  • He saluted Victor Emmanuel as 'the first King of Italy'.
  • Handed over teritory to king. 
  • Ballots that were held showed an overwhelming wish for annexation by Piedmont. 
  • November 7th - Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel rode together in a triumphal state entry into Naples. 
  • Garibaldi handed over all his conquests to Victor Emmanuel.
  • Garibaldi refused all titlesand rewards. 
  • He retired to his Island with a years supply of mararoni. 
  • All Italy expect from Rome and Venetia had been united under Victor Emmanuel and the constitution of Piedmont had been extended to the whole of the new Kingdom of Italy.
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