Reasons FOR globalisation
The reasons FOR globsalisation includes:
- 1). Generate wealth and economic oppourtinities.
- 2). Pooled sovereignty
- 3). Democratisation
1) Generates wealth
A reason why globalisation is a good thing because it generates wealth:
- Neoliberals argue that globalisation is the only reliable source to generate wealth and the guarantee of prosperity alongside economic opportunity.
- This means that all people and countries can benefit from wider prosperity and opportunities, that is brought about by capitalism.
- This means that the rich get richer, whilst the poor also get rich.
- This is because international trade allows all countries to specialise in the production of goods at services.
- As a result, there has been an increase in social mobility, due to the advantage of wider working, career and educational opportunities.
2). Pooled sovereignty
Another reason globalisation is an advantage because of pooled sovereignty:
- This is because pooled sovereignty has expanded the capabilties of the state, expanding their opportunities, provided for by international organisations.
- This includes the IMF, WB and WTO giving loans to countries in bad debt, to help them recover and re build their economies.
- This has mostly been developed in the EU, as it has been able to exert more influence in a globalised world, than member stats could do alone.
- Therefore, they share their sovereignty to allow a united front.
Democratisation that globalisation brings has made it an advantage because:
- Since the 1990s, people have enjoyed wider econpmic and social opportunities.
- This means that they will demand greater opportunities, such as political participation.
- This has been helped through cultural globalisation, which has allows the spread of technology and media- leading to the spread of democracy.
- E.g. The Arab Spring in 2011, saw its citizens protesting against their authoritarian leader, as they the Al Jazeera and Quitar News showed them the advantages of democracy.
- There has been much interest in the idea of 'democratic peace'.
- As democracy has spread, 'democratic zones of peace' have emerged, such as in the EU.
- This makes military conflict almost unthinkable.
Reasons AGAINST globalisation
Reasons AGAINST globalisation include:
- 1). Uncertainty and insecurity
- 2). Rise of non-state actors
- 3). Tyranny of TNCs
1). Uncertainty and Insecurity
A reason against globalisation is that the widening social connectedness results in uncertainty and insecurity:
- This means that risks cannot be properly managed. (Bauman).
- This has been supported by Beck, who argued that there has been growth in 'tragic individualisation', where states are forced to cope with the uncertain world alone, as a result of globalisation.
- This has especially happened, due to new threats arising, such as terrorism and global warming etc.
- This was one of the arguments for the UK to remain in the EU, because it would mean that it wouldn't have the support network of the EU to face issues like these.
2). Rise of non-state actors
Rise of non-state actors has been a disadvantage of globalisatio because:
- The rise of the power held by TNCs and 'global goods' has spread influence around the workd.
- E.g. Apple has greater financial power than Ireland, meaning it can dictate the state through its ability to relocate and invest in other countries, which Apple is considering on doing.
- The spread of communications techonologies, such as TV, has homogenised global flows.
- This has produced a backlacj, where polarisation- also known as 'Clash of Civilisations' by Huntington, where key conflict would occur between the West and Islam, and between, the USA and China.
3). Tyranny of TNCs
A disadvantage of globalisation is the tyranny of TNCs:
- TNCs account for about 50% of the world's manufactoring production and over 70% of world trade.
- This has often dwarfed states, in terms of economic size.
- Therefore, TNCs are likely to be drawn to states that offer low taxation, regulation and a stable political environment.
- TNCs also take advantange of cheap labpur, weak trade unions and limited protecton for labour rights.
- Examples of TNCs include Apple, Nike, and GAP.