Anti globalisation movement Jine 03, June 04, June 08
Movement opposes consequences of globalisation (integration of world economies into a single market). Bringing range of interest groups from both the North and the South. As seen in these demonstrations: G8 at Gleneagles 05, G20 in London 09, and other organisations considered to be driving globalisation: IMF and WB and WTO.
Why has it attracted so much support? Tapped into a variety of anxieties and concerns (which modern comm. makes people more aware of via internet). Attract a wide range of groups: Anarchists, anti-capitalists, charities, trade unionists etc.
Criticism's of globalisation? Benefits the rich at the expense of the poor. Through:
Biased global trade rules E.g. Southern Farmers ruined by subsidiesd food exports from the US and EU.
Globalisation damages the living standards of the workers. E.g. US trade unions protecting their interests against southern competition
Enviromentalists argue that globalisation does huge damage to the planet.
Global recession has shown the dangers of globalisation (particularly financial) which has encouraged anti-globalisation movements even more.
The very absense of precise goals, maximises its appeal and even allows groups who have essentially conflicting aims to participate e.g. french famers campaigning for more subsidies, against a southern group protesting against northern subsidies.
The impact of globalisation. June 03. June 04. Jan 09. (Jan 07, June 08)
Define globalisation. Globalisation reduces the importance of the nation state which is seen as the pre-eminent actor in global politics. Globalisation has undermined state soveriengty:
- economic globalisation has weakened a states control over its national economy. Undermining a states ability to protect its industries and workers. Multi-nationals seek to influence national policies (e.g. nissan lobbying the UK to join the euro). Financial markets can move huge sums across borders overwhelming national economies (e.g. black wednesday 1992). IMF, WB and WTO undermining sovereignty of Southern countries by making them open up their markets to globalisation.
- cultural globalisation means that states struggle to keep out material it considers undesirable (e.g. racist propaganda, child ***********)
- Other developments: enviroment damage, easier for diseases to spread, makes it easier for terrorists.
However, globalisation shouldn't be exaggerated:
- states still contain considerable powers (e.g. China is able to censor the net)
- the 'credit crunch' has exposed the dangers of globalisation, reaffirming the power of the state. (de-globalisation?) e.g. states having to buy out the banks like Northern Rock.
- urgent need for action at a global level to tackle climate change.
Globalisation as a modern phenomenom? June 08.
Internet, mobile phones, free trade. However: globalisation goes back a long way e.g. Britsh Empire, 1930s depression.
Is sovereignty still important in international politics? June 03. June 05.
Define soveriengty- the ultimate power a state holds, it were the state is constitutionally and legal independence from outside authority.
- states are still reluctant to give up their sovereignty. e.g. Britain chose not to join the Euro as would lose the ability to change interest rates etc.
- states still stress the importance of borders. e.g. many states try to resist immigration.
- membership in IGO's is voluntary and countries can leave if they wish. e.g. Britain in theory could leave the EU.
- states are still very powerful and can try to resist the factors that undermine soveriengty (like globalisation, e.g. china censoring internet sites)
- states lose alot of power by being members of IGO's
- globalisation: MNC's have the power to pressure states
- powerful states can pressure weaker states through force or trade sanctions.
- pressure from outside countries to achieve human rights.
Discuss the implications of economic globalisation for state sovereignty. June 06.
Globalisation (define) has weakened state soveriengty. However, states are far from dead and continue to exercise sovereignty in major areas.
Globalisation has undermined state sovereignty:
- states are subject to the intergovernmental organisations that police the rule of regional and global trade.
- globalisation has made private firms and traders very powerful in relation to states.
- globalised communication systems weakens the states ability to keep out material it considers undesirable.
- Other developments: enviroment, can help aid terrorism, can help spread diseases
However, states still retain alot of power which they seek to protect:
- the whole operation of the global economy depends on agreements which states have entered into voluntarily.
- states still retain much of their sovereign power more or less intact. They have military power e.g. Russias intervention in Georgia in 2008. States still make decisions over domestic aspects like education taxes etc. States still try to resist immigration
- states seek to contain some of the forces of globalisation e.g. Iran bans satelitte dishes.
What is sovereignty and why could it be said to be an outdated concept? Jan 09.
WORLD GOVERNMENT 1
There are clear moves towards the establishment of world government. Jan 04. Jan 07 June 08.
This belief might arise from the growth of supranational organisations since WW2 the UN. There is no world government, but the UNSC could be executive, international treaties as legislation and courts as a form of judiciary.
- most obvious candiadate for a world government is the UN. tackles threats to peace, has a host of agencies operating at global level, and a series of conventions which lay down the norms (such as rights for refugees)
- The EU is way ahead in providing a supranational government structure for most of Europe
- other supranational organisations promote common standards. E.g. WTO US steel tariffs 2002. IMF and WB seek to spread a market based economic model in the south.
- there are global courts for disputes between states (WC) and to punish those guilty of human rights abuses (ICC)
- leading powers try to tackle global issues like G8, G20.
WORLD GOVERNMENT 2
Case against, well short of a world government, persistance of national sovereignty limits the effectivness of international cooperation.
- UN at mercy of its member states. particularly of the world superpower the US. e.g. Bush disregarded the UN over Iraq in 2003. Despite R2P it has done little so far to protect human rights abuses e.g. Darfur.
- EU remains well short of a federation, as seen with the rejection of the Const. and Treaty of Lisbon
- International cooperation against global probels has a mixed record. E.g. Kyoto was sabotages by the US refusal to comply.
Conclusion: a move to a world government in the future seems unlikely as states are keen to protect national sovereignty.
ANARCHY AND ORDER
Why is the international system sometimes described as anarchical? June 06. Jan 04.
Anarchy- political system where there is no goverment an power is held by local communities. Chaos, absense of order. No world government, although theree are international rules they are often ineffective at restraining states.
The IGO which comes closest to a world government in the UN, and is controlled by member states and their lack of willingness to sacrifice their own power and sovereignty sharply limits its ability to impose order. (then go on to talk about UN successes)
A range of other global or regional IGO's and treaties exist to bring order to the international system. Ranging from the EU to the Internatioanl Maritime Organisation and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. E.g. Iran and North Korea has breached the NPT rules in recent years.
However: states prefer order to anarchy. Kegley and wittkopf: ordered anarchy.