refers to the way complex relationships are created and the subbsequent suprantionalism 

refers to the nature of globalisation for widening and deepening of interconnectedness and independence 

to liberals complex interdependence indicated that states are involved in multiple integrative interrelationships achieved through multilateral institutions 

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give examples of deterritorialisation


EU- 19 countries in the eurozone meant that they have their interests rates set by ECB (economic policy has been deterritorialized)

NATO- article 5 diminishes states right to control their own arms as it binds all 29 members to collective security 

UN/IMF/WB enforce debtor countries to enforce neoliberal policies (through SAP's)- it extends control over their internal sovereignty 

combined control by the the troika (EC, ECB and IMF) impose austerity on Greece following eurozone crisis and pressure the Greek government to dismiss their financial minister - they witheld 86 billion euro programme until Greece ageed to a number of policies 

executed UNSCR 1973 no fly zone over Libya which meant that Libya lost control over their air space- impinged Libya as a sovereign entity 

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definition of globalisation

Evans and Newham 1998

A process whereby state centric agencies and in terms of reference are dissolved in favour of a structure that is truly global rather than merely  international 

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Economic globalisation

> Money transcend increasingly poroud border/ the presence of financial transactions suggest a borderless world (Scholter 2005) 

e.g large membership of international institutions such as wto(164 members) and imf with 189 members - show how the actions of borders are increasingly porous.

they regulate economic dealing therefore they are paremeters for which members behave and consequently limits are put on their sovereignty and freedom of choice.  

e.g IMF assess countries econmic dealings, if a country receieves a negative imf report then it can lead to foreign direct un-investment. the reports can damage a countries capacity for econmic flexability therefore there is a higher authority that has the capacity to exert considerabe influence on their economy. 

People trade as blocs e.g. EU is a whole bloc in the WTO 

export of neoliiberal econmics had irrespective consequences. IMF and WTO have been enforcing these policies under washington consensus e.g interlocking financial markets and transnational capital flows to increase world trade 

1960 volumes of trade £600 billion 

2013 volumes of trade £22.4 bilion 

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culture globalisation

process whereby information commodities and images produced in one part of the world enter a global flow that levels out culture differences between nations, regions and individuals 

a culture is a way of life of a group of people 

culture includes language, religion, social norms, traditions, moral principles and shared history of a society 

Anthony Giddens 'Runaway world' 1999- believes that culture is divided into three elements: 

global outlook, global identity and global value 

Deterritorialisation is also evident through cultural globalisation as shown through:

marriage and gender identity (Transgenderism)

breaking of gender hierarchy (female chancellor of Germany and female prime minister in UK) 

India's caste system has been dismantled 

apartheid has been removed in South Africa - instead theres an increasing spread of ideas of racial equality 

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Evidence of culture globalisation

global brands and products such as apple, google, facebook 

recent globalisation of sport (olympics global audience of approx 2 billion - world cup promoted by a lot advertising 

information transmission is now global through CNN, BBC news and Al Jazeera 

The Entertainment industry Bollywood Nollywood Hollywood 

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Criticisms of culture globalisation

Chomsky (Manufacturing consent) argues the sharinf of products which cultural globalisation promotes means that countries are willingingly allowing themselves to be dominated by another country 

serves the interests of economic globalisation thereby advancing the interests of transnational corporations e.g. Hollywood is more of a business than a culture- Heineken paid £28 million to appear in the James Bond films > resulted in a consumer culture where criticisms have risen to the strength of hegemony of these companies 

Coca-colonisation- Wagnleitner 1994 - used in anti globalisation campaigns to highlight the hegemonic influence of western brands.

Schiller 'Americanisation' alludes to cultural domination over a global scale which leads ot cultural imperialism. Links to Gramsci's concept of hegemony 

North Koreas has closed its boreders 

China controls the internet with China - offered WEIBO as an alternative to Facebook 

Western culture has domainted in a global scale , arguably lead to polarization meaning that the domination by foreign ideas, values and lifestyles can leads to the rise of ethnic, religious and national movements 

 cultural globalisation has been associated with political extremism as perceieved WESTERN domination has stimulated the growth of forms of religious fundamentalism and ethnic nationalism

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Culture backlash

China had a summer blackout where they didnt show any Hollywood movies (Dunkirk was delayed by 2 months to give time for domestic film makers to be celebrated 

backlash against western cultural imperialism with the rise of fundamentalism and indentity conflict 

predicted by Samuel Hungtingdon's clash of civilisations 1993- argues that there are growing tensions between the West and Islam and the West and China. due to EASTERN RESISTANCE TO WESTERN CULTURAL IMPERIALISM with eastern states seeking to maintain their identity and culture. 

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Political Globalisation

Political globalisation can be legitimatley understood to refer to the global spread of political ideas (human rights, political structures such as liberal democracy and rule of law (End of History and the Last Man Fukyama- 1992 - end of the cold war and triumph of liberal democracies) 

Bobbit 2002 the market state- the state is there to serve the interests of the market not the interests of the people in the country 

spread of democracy 

spread of sovereign independence- paradoxically there have never been more nation station states- the culture of nation states (51 nation states in the UN in 1945 now there are 193) 

development of international body of law under the ICJ- nation states are bound by it legally even it is broken- it still exists. (article 93.1 all members of UN are ipso facto parties to the ICJ) - article 94 all members of the un must comply with ICJ decisions in any case to which it is a party 

can be legally binding - article 25 of UN charter- all 193  countries have to accept and carry out the decisions of the UNSC in accordance with the present charter. It required cooperaion to reach a decision. Evidenced with the spread of human rights- the rise of cosmopolitcal sensibility 

responsibility to protect (R2P) imples a lack of choice in upholding Western values 

growing independence had shifted the focus of global politics away from conserns with issues of war and peace and now onto foreign policy agenda, environment, poverty and development and HR 

great deal of development of regional integration and global governance such as the EU, African Union, UN, Arab League 

multilateral institutions can lead to a loss of sovereignty and freedom to determine their own economic autonomy. it can enfoorce conditionalisty such as SAP's (IMF AND WORLD BANK) 

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Hyperglobalizers- (tend to be liberals) 

deterritorialisation is taking place 

believe there is rapid globalisation taking place and historically unprecedented levels of interconnectedness, thickening and widening levels of globalisations>>>  lead to decline of the state which is reflected in greater importance of non state actors (includes TNC'S, NGO's (terrorist organisations) and transnational criminal organisations. 

portray globalisation as profound  and revolutionary in international politics (intensified since 1980's) 

Globalisation cuts deep and is transformative- has propelled  us into a new world where state centric agencies and in terms of reference are dissolved in favour of a structure that is truly global rather than merely international 

supraterritorialism- state of process in which a supranational authroity excercuses jurisdiction over subordinate entities. 

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Transformationalists (post- sceptics)-

triadic system where the global economy is still divided into global economic power (may include Western europe, southeat asia and north america) but arguably we r moving towards a quadratic system where countries such as Latin America are beginnning to emerge 

Luke Martell 'The Third wave of globalisation' 2007 - an attempt to construct a complex and qualified theory of globalisation

argued that there is more of a hybrf between hyper globalisers and globalisation sceptics

the world has never been wealtheir,- there are more global wealth today than in any times in history - but the distribution has become very unequal. 

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globalisation sceptics

Globalisation sceptics (tend to be realists) 

believe globalisations has been overstates and the state sovereignty exists 

believe that globalisation is the opportunity for nation states to enhance their power e.g. through new markets, access to cheap labour and raw materials, humanitarian intervention (Claude 1962 'supranational bodies are just disguises for the states controlling them') 

uneven political globalisation takes place - Zolo 1997/2002 

the global econmy is unfairly integrated e.g sub-sharan africa is much less integrated than the power houses of the East Africa, Europe and North America 

levels of political inequality  are rising not falling- globaistaion is not producing benefits for the majority of the population 

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