finishes to fabrics

gcse textiles

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  • Created by: katy
  • Created on: 21-06-10 22:08

PHYSICAL FINISHES

  • Brushing
  • Calendering

CHEMICAL FINISHES

  • Mercisizing
  • Waterproofing
  • Flame proofing
  • Stain resistance
  • Easy care
  • Anti static
  • Anti felting
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BRUSHING

  • Raises fibres on the surface of the fabric
  • The fabric is passed around a series of wire covered rollers wich pull the fibre ends to form a pile
  • used on cotton bedding and garments

Results

  • Soft, fluffy surface
  • air trapped in fibres and fabric is more insulating

Disadvatages:

  • Fabric weaker and more flammable
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CALENDERING

  • Opposite to brushing
  • fabric passed through heated rollers wich smooth and compact the surface of the fabric
  • like ironing

Result:

  • smoother more luster and shine

Disadvantages:

  • not permanent
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MERCERCIZING

  • Cotton fibres treated with sodium hydroxide while being held under tension

Result:

  • makes fabrics and fibres more lustrous
  • cotton fibres become more rounded and straighter making them-
  • softer
  • stronger
  • more absorbant
  • Permanent
  • sewing threads
  • dress and shirt fabrics
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WATERPROOFING

  • Chemicals (usually silicones) applied to fabric by spraying or impregination
  • forms a barrier to prevent water droplets from soaking into fabric

Uses

  • outdor clothing
  • umbrellas
  • tents
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FLAME PROOFING

  • Chemicals applied to yarn or fabric
  • slow down/ prevent burning

Result:

  • makes fabric stiffer
  • important to finish furnishings
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STAIN RESISTANCE

  • Prevents fabric from absorbing stain or dirt
  • sillicone treatment resists water based stains
  • sythetic resins needed for oil based stains
  • makes fabric waterproof

uses:

  • furnishing
  • fabrics
  • clothing
  • floor coverings
  • shoes
  • clothing
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EASY CARE

  • Chemicals applied to fabrics to make them easier to wash and iron
  • after treatment fibres do not absorb water so they dry quicker
  • They crease less
  • don't shrink
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ANTISTATIC

  • Chemicals applied to fabric
  • help fibres absorb water from the atomosphere
  • prevents build up of static

uses:

  • Floor coverings
  • clothing
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ANTIFELTING

  • Wool fibres felt matt together if not washed correctly
  • 2 methods can reduce this

soften the tips

  • of the scales of the fibres by an oxidative treatment

Coat the fibre

  • with a synthetic polymer film
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