Traditional interpretations of the importance of C
Trad. interpretations (e.g Clarendon's) have tended to stress the importance of Crom + assert that after his death there wa no alternative to monarchy.
Revisionists views for the failure of the Interreg
Revisionists look at the role of structural factors and divisions within the NMA.
Who was allowed to vote in elections according to
1. Men with personal property worth £200.
2. Royalists were excluded from the 1st 4 Parl's by the CofS.
3. Parl' to meet for @ least 5 months every 3 years.
Was the Protectorate a military dictatorship?
It would seem more sensible to say the Protectorate was a hybrid of a military dictatorship and a constitutionally legitimate regime.
Why is Cromwell viewed as a military dictator?
1. The Protectorate owed its creation to the Army.
2. Cromwell used military force to repeatedly assert his dominance and will.
3. Dictator - Ordinances, treatment of Royalists, disregard for the constitutional process of acts being ratified by Parl', Thurloe + purging of town corps.
4. MGs Aug 1655 - Jan 1657
5. In times of crisis Crom sided with the Army.
What did Ludlow call the Instrument of Government?
A 'work of darkness'.
What does Coward think about Crom's justification
Coward says that Crom's justification for closing the Rump because they tried to perpetuate their power by holding further elections 'holds very little water'.
When was the period when Crom displayed most of th
The period between the 1st and 2nd Protectorate Parliaments, end of 1655 to beginning of 1656. Ordinances, treatment of Rs, disregard for constitutional process of acts being ratified by parl', Thurloe + purging of town corps.
What was Thurloe's committee?
A 3-man censorship committtee, censor all newspapers apart from 3 gov' ones.
Debt for 1654
The debt for this period alone was £350,000.
National tax bill at the start of the regime
£90,000 a month
What disasters prompted the introduction of the MG
1. Cony Case 1654
2. Failure of the WD 1655
£. P's R 1665 - generatre a resurrgence of R fear.
Crom's proclamation Sept 1655
If they were 'in cases such as these tied to the ordinary rules' there would be 'no safety from conspiracy'. - most felt this = an abuse of power.
So unpopular in his district of Kent that he = unable to win any of the 11 seats available in the 1656 elections.
Why were MGs so unpopular?
1. R propaganda - social inferiors + killjoys
2. Purposefully foreign to their military districts
3. Contary to the pardon and obilivion act 1652
4. Local gentry resented the loss of control of their local gov'
5. sev. MGs = related to Crom - in fact sev. of those who shared power with Crom = related to him
Why should Crom not be classed as a military dicta
1. MGs = not unduly repressive or militaristic
2. Censorship not strongly enforced
3. establishment + maintenance of the R + the BBs/NA was carried out by the Arny.
4. Change in gov' led to conflict between Crom's main aims of H+S + GR
5. Crom's tol' = evident - not concerned with constitutional change, but cultural change.
Coward's view on the public perception of the Prot
The Protectorate government slowly became more appealing to people as a method of maintaining stability.
How many rebels were involved in Penruddock's Risi
400 rebels were involved in Penrrudock's Rising in 1655.
Articles in the Instrument of Government that limi
Article 7: Parl' met @ least once every 4 years.
Article 8: Illegal for Parl' to be dissolved without its consent - each session having to last a min of 5 months.
Article 11: If the Protector failed to call Parl' then the Commissioner of the Great Seal would automatically issue parliamentary writs calling for gen. elections for a new Parl'.
Article 4: Protector had to make decisions about peace and war with the support of Parl'. If they weren't in session it was essential that he consulted the Council of State on the matter.
Davis quote about Crom's religious beliefs
Crom believed in 'anti-formalism'.
Crom's declaration in Feb 1655
Crom declared it was his duty to 'preserve and continue freedom and liberty to all persons fearing God in the Commonwealth.'
Cromwell was not concerned with constitutional changes, as a dictator would have been, but rather with seismic cultural change.
Coward's view on whether Cromwell was a military d
Crom can be viewed as head of a 'revolutionary republic' (Coward), but not a military dictator.
The Commission of Triers was established - a national body to vet all new clergy.
The Commission of Ejectors was appointed to expel inadequate ministers and school masters.
What was the main contents of the First Protectora
2. Mod. law reform
3. Triers + Ejectors
4. Dominated by challenges to the constitution
When was the HP + A drafted? And by whom?
The HP + A was drafted in the first session of the second Protectorate Parliament by Lord Broghill.
Rate of debt by 1656
By 1656 debt was increasing at a rate of an extra £250,000 per year.
- This is why the Second protectorate Parl' was called a year early.
The HP + A March 1657
1. Crom to accept the title of King + bring back hereditary monarchy - Protector could name his successor.
2. Set up 'other' house - like the HofLs, nominated by the Protector.
3. Assembly of Divines to be called by Cromwell to agree the doctrines of a national church.
4. Savage laws against Caths enacted.
5. Parl' meet every 2 years.
6. The 2 houses would have a veto on the Protector's appointments to the CofS
7. Revenues to pay for the gov' to include a fixed amount to cover cost of the Army/Navy
8. Those MPs originally excluded in 1656 were allowed back into the Cs.
Who were the opposition groups to Cromwell?
5. The Ls
How many people did Cromwell have executed?
Only 8 people were executed for rebellion during Cromwell's reign.
Hatton's view on Crom
Cromwell was a religious zealot whose concerns only focused on a small minority.
Worden's view on Crom's religious policy
Cromwell was more concerned with unity than tol'.
Worsden's view of Cromwell's religious policy
Cromwell's support of conservative tol' was not a religious belief, but a pragmatic approach.
Grant's point against Cromwell being a military di
Crom was limited by the IoG + the late HP + A
Worden's view of the regime
The regime was not to reform, but to tolerate as Cromwell offered 'the Liberty of Conscience'.
Why was the Protectorate not a revolutionary regim
1. Day-to-day presssures were too great
2. Not enough revolutionaries! - 22 out of the original 44 membs of the CofS in 1649 wouldn't take the oath declariing the approval of the regicide.
Why did the 1st protectorate Parliament fail?
1. They attacked the IoG - not like the power that it gave Crom
2. Anti-Army Parl' - vote for reduction of TA + abolition of monthly assessment.
3. Not like religious tol' as most = Pres - Crom wanted to start a new way of interviewing the clergy.
4. Don't start things because they = trying to sort out the IoG.
What factors influenced the offering of the crown
1. Growing influence of 'Civilian' Cromwellians such as lord Broghill during 1656-7.
2. Fears about Cromwell's own mortality - Sindercombe plot 1656
3. Nayler case 1656 - Parl' had too much power.
4. MGs - sharpened fears of a military dictatorship.
5. Give Crom's position constitutional validity - prospect of a stable gov' + lasting reconciliation.
Bethel's view on Cromwell's FP
Crom sacrificed the country's present + future national interest in pursuit of his own personal religious aims that were shaped by the past.
- a charge that is commonaly levelled at Cromwell's FP
Clarendon's view of Crom's FP
Cromwell's greatness at home was a 'shadow of the glory he had abroad', France, Spain and the Low countries all wanted an alliance.
How much did the war with Spain in Europe cost the
About £1 mill a year - This forced Crom to recall parl'.
Treaty of Westminster April 1654
1. Eng merchants recieve compensation for their losses
2. Dutch agreed to recognise Eng sov' in the channel
3. Eng recieved Pula Run
4. Dutch refuse any help to CS
What was Crom's personal motto that was incorporat
'peace through war'
What were the signs for the future development of
1. greater diversity of exports
2. More trade with the caribbean, America, Africa + the Far East
3. Development of other trade centers - e.g Bristol
4. Eng emerges pre-eminent
Capp's view on the protectorate's influence on the
The period had a significant impact on the future development of naval professionalism.
How many Quakers were there by 1655?
There were 50,000 Quakers
What does Durston think was the real threat to soc
'It was Godly rule' in 'England between 1655 + 57, which was seen as a tremendous threat to society.'