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Cromwell as Lord Protector
Theories of government
Thomas Hobbes "Social contract theory" people surrender some freedoms and
submit to an authority in return for their security.

Classical republican thinking it was lawful to hold a tyrant to account for his actions.

Levellers Everyone should be equal, franchise, 1 chamber of…

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The instrument of government was an alternative constitution
written by John Lambert before even the national assembly was
1) Lord protectorate was the hold executive powers
The position of head of state was not hereditary and he had to have ratification
of his decisions by parliament council of state…

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Cromwell wanted to maintain the links to the ancient constitution, whilst also
distancing him from the disgraced monarchy.

Within 4 days of ending the nominated assembly the instrument had begun and
Cromwell installed as lord protector. The instrument of government never had full
civilian backing and was a government system…

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achieve a godly nation he would have to use the army and this was contradictory
because he wanted a settlement through parliament.

The makeup of the first parliament was a widely diverse group of people.460 members
including Presbyterians, republicans and even some royalist sympathisers.

Cromwell's four fundamentals

1) Government by…

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Failure to capture Spanish colonies in the New World suggested to Cromwell that
reformation was needed. Cromwell viewed the failure as God's judgement on England's
lack of progress in terms of a Godly reformation.

Godly reformation

After the dissolution of the first protectorate parliament it seemed necessary to create a…

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Activities banned on Sundays such as gambling, plays. Cussing and blasphemy were
clamped down on.


Major Generals:

Charles Worsley
Clamped down on 200
alehouses closures and
dealing with drunkenness
Helped the poor

Council of state member…

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Persecuted Royalists

John Desboruough
Crushed Penruddock uprising

In September 1656 Cromwell said "the system of the major generals had been affective
n reducing vice and in settling religion ­ not quite true.

The Second Protectorate Parliament
Cromwell was advised to call parliament in order to raise money for war with…

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Be granted adequate financial resources
Rule with a restored Privy Council and with regular parliaments that would
include an upper house.

Renewal of Kingship was meant to not extend Cromwell's authority but to limit it.
Constitutional monarchy in which parliament would be equal and permanent power
which effectively meant the…


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