External Factors for Under-achievement of Working-Class

Cultural Deprivation:

  • Intellectual development
  • Language
  • Attitudes and Values

Material Deprivation

  • Housing & Health
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  • Created by: Iram
  • Created on: 16-01-10 23:08

Cultural Deprivation:Intellectual Development

J.W.B Douglas' study 'the home and the school'. He argues that the reason for the failure of working-class(wc) pupils in educational achievement, is the lack of parental interest. He suggested that the wc parents are less likely to help their children with education by reading a book with them or carrying out educational activities. This is seen as the cause for wc pupils scoring less when teachers carried out tests.

Where as the middle-class(mc) pupils scored higher because their parents helped them to intellectually develop their skills by choosing educational toys for them and reading a book with them.

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Cultural Deprivation:Language

Bernstein and Engelmann distinguished between two types of speech code.

Restricted (wc):

  • Use limited vocabulary
  • Short, simple sentences
  • Context-bound

Elaborated (mc):

  • Use wide range of vocabulary
  • Complex sentences
  • Context-free
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Cultural Deprivation:Attitudes and Values

Sugarman identifies four types of values and beliefs held by the wc pupils.

  • Present-time orientation- do not plan for future, think about now.
  • Immediate gratification- don't believe in gaining rewards later, want satisfaction now.
  • Collectivism- stay in groups, don't think about individual achievement.
  • Fatalism- accept failure as fate, its going to happen anyway.

P? In Chocolate Factory

P?(pick a word/name with 'p')

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Material Deprivation: Housing & Health

The following housing + health factors affect wc pupils' educational achievement.

  • Overcrowded homes

=lack of concentration

  • Lack of study space

=less work completed

  • Lacking in vitamins + nutrients

=no energy

=lack of concentration

=less school attendance

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Rachel Woodgate


I really liked your acronym!! Good brief detail



I'm sure there are other material factors you could mention low income but otherwise the brief notes on what leads on from each factor as a consequence causing underachievement. Good study as well thanks.



Thank you! This was useful for a quick re-cap



this is one of the best ones so far, thank you so much

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