External reasons for ethnic differences in achievement.

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  • External- ethnic differences in achievement
    • Murray (1984)
      • High rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive male role models leads to under-achievement in minority pupils.
    • Pryce (1979)
      • Black pupils have low self-esteem and underachieve due to experiences with slavery.
    • Evans (2006)
      • Street culture in white working-class areas can be brutal and is brought into school.
    • Swann Report (1985)
      • Social class accounts for at least 1/2 of the difference in educational achievement between ethnic groups.

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