- Unsuccesful Catholic attempt to depose of Queen Elizabeth I and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots.
- By Northern nobles in Northern England.
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- Northern families fearful and distrustful of William Cecil - felt their powers and the feudal system were in decline.
- The Duke of Norfolk's control of the Council of the North threatened the nobles with limiting the powers as the Council were given more powers to administer.
- Duke of Norfolk planned to marry Mary Queen of Scots and put her on the throne - this meant he would have more powers through influencing her.
- Under the reign of Elizabeth the Duke of Northumberland who had previously been restored under Mary Tudor's reign, found that his powers were limited.
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- The rebels obviously had religious reasons due to their action of restoring mass at Durham Cathedral.
- Being from the North, the rebels will have had a Conservative Catholic attitude.
- The Duke of Northumberland stated he was rebelling for religious reasons.
- Mary Queen of Scots arrival to England acted as a catalyst as they saw an opportunity to re-catholicise the country.
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- The Duke of Northumberland was denied his right to the profits from the copper mines that were discovered in his land.
- The nobles rebelled because of the tenants had risen against the gentry.
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- Following the Duke of Norfolk's arrest, the rebels felt they could either flee or act.
- The Countess of Northumberland was a very powerful woman, so led the men.
- The North isn't near the Tudor infrastructure so could rise quite easily.
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- Variety of causes including political, religious, economic and other causes.
- However fundamentally caused by politico-religious reasons.
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