Explain why the Northern Rebellion of 1569 fail?

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  • Explain why the Northern Rebellion of 1569 fail?
    • There was a lack of foreign support and where there was foreign support, it came too late.
      • Phillip II of Spain didn't give his support because of Mary Queen of Scot's connections with France.
      • The news of the Pope having issued a Papal Bull of excommunication to Queen Elizabeth I, the rebellion was practically over.
    • The rebels own actions led to the failure of the rebellion.
      • After hearing that the Earl of Sussex would attack the rebels with a force of 7,000 men, the 4,600 rebels retreated North to Scotland.
      • Following Mary Queen of Scot's movement further South and consequently her arrest, the Earls soon realised that they wouldn't be able to free her.
    • The rebellion wasn't planned, and lacked a coherent programme.
      • Geographically, the rebellion was limited to the North.
      • Not all of the Duke of Northmuberland's tenants were mobilised.
    • There was still support for Queen Elizabeth I.
      • Through deference and fear.
      • Appeals to the Catholic nobility completely failed.
        • In particular, Lancashire and Cheshire showed little to no support.
    • Effective Government Officials (Eg. Lord Scrope)
      • Contained the rebellion by holding key towns such as Pontefract, Berwick and York.
    • Xenophobia
      • There was little enthusiasm to restore papal supremacy.
      • The idea of replacing Queen Elizabeth I with a foreigner wasn't popular.
    • Conclusion
      • Failed due to the rebels' bad decisions, the lack of foreign support and the rebels' inability to gain support.

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