Blackpool: Hold the Line
- Blackpool is one of many coastal seaside resorts along the Lancashire coast.
- The land is low lying so flooding is more of a threat than erosion.
- Blackpool has piers, a promenade, tower and famous pleasure beach which brings in 6 million visitors a year.
- A massive concrete sea wall (hard engineering) has been used to protect its investment in the tourist industry but this comes with a very high price tag.
- Despite he recent decline in Blackpool's tourist numbers, the resort has recently received £62 million of funding through DEFRA to develop its central promenade which is overtopped in winter storms.
- The new wall will be designed to deflect and absorb the waves energy rather than resist it and it will be extended by 5 hectares along with an improvement to the access to the beach.
- The sea wall protects 1,500 businesses and residential properties.
- Blackpool also uses soft engineering in the form of dune regeneration.
Abbotts Hall Farm: Managed Retreat
- The scheme to have a managed retreat was introduced in 2002.
- The eustatic rise and isostatic sinking has resulted in a 6mm rise per year in this area.
- 40% of salt marshes have been lost to coastal squeeze over the last 25 years.
- The salt marshes are an important breeding and nesting environment for birds but this land is being eroded at a rate of 2m per year.
- 5 breaches were made in the embankments, allowing 80 hectares of arable fields to be covered in sea water meaning it will now also become salt marsh.
- The success of this scheme has persuaded the RSPB to embark on a much larger project which will involve returning the whole of the nearby island of Wallasea to an extensive mosaic of marsh, creeks and mudflats.
Sheringham: Advance the Line
- Sheringham is located on the North Norfolk coast with a population of 7,143.
- It is an important tourist resort for Norfolk and it has many hotels and cafes to cater for the industry which brings in a large proportion of its revenue for the local economy.
- The area has been protected because of the high land value and the busy tourist town environment which brings in revenue.
- The forms of hard engineering used in Sheringham are sea walls, groynes and promenades.
- The first sea wall in Sheringham was built in Victorian times.
- Research has shown that most beaches in North Norfolk including Sheringham are eroding, getting shorter and steeper allowing deeper water inshore to attack the man made defences.
- In 1998, £1.5 million was spent on repairing and replacing the wooden groynes and installing rock groynes.
Weybourne: Do Nothing
- It is a small fishing village also located on the North Norfolk coast with a population of 518 (2001 census).
- A do nothing approach is in place because the land is mainly used for agriculture.
- Revetments were once in place but in 1998 these were destroyed by storms and then left unmanaged.
- The cliff face is showing a lot of evidence of slumping and sub-aerial weathering.
- The danger of this approach to Weybourne is that there are 5 coastguard cottages approximately 10m from the cliff.