Slides in this set
Types of coast
· Trade coast:
this refers to a coast that mainly deals with economic activities e.g. importation
· Creational coast:
coast that is mainly used for leisure purposes.
· Residential coast:
A coast mainly for residential purposes
· Resource coast
A coast that is used for mass production
A flooded lower course of a valley where the mixing of fresh and salt water
happens due to different densities. They provide sheltered environments where
deposition of fine river sediment occurs. They are controlled by tidal and non
tidal currents.…read more
Form in the more sheltered parts of estuaries. E.g. behind spits. This is because the
high tide deposits sediment where the velocity decreases. Salt marshes are very
fertile ecosystems, and important feeding grounds for the ecosystems.
Composed of low trees and shrubs with dense root systems that grow in swampy,
muddy waters in tidal zones between tropical sea and land. Mangroves filter out
sediment that harms the coral reef, and the coral absorbs energy that would harm
the mangroves. Coral Reef makes up 0.1% of the oceans, and 25% of marine life. If
climate change continues to happen, coral is under threat from coral bleaching from
more acidic waters.
Wide low gradient beaches with strong onshore winds and obstacles such as
driftwood or vegetation form sand dunes…read more
· Coastalisation: refers to the process of coastal development.
· Stake holders: these are the people who are interested in the activities of the coast.
Examples of coastalisation
The coast of Spain increases by 1.2% per year due to migration. On Mediterranean
coast, 65% of it is urbanised. Concerns: What will happen to Biodiversity? Is there
enough water? Is this causing conflict, due to too much pressure on the land?
75% of people live on the coast in Florida, It has pleasant weather and sandy beaches,
with good accessibility. It is known as the Sunshine State. Florida is in a peninsula
shape, meaning that everywhere is close to the coast. Concerns: 80% of the
Everglades Wetland has been lost. 9% of Florida lies less than 2m above sea level.
90% live in urban areas in Australia. On the coast there is 5 big cities where you can
find good schools, cheap housing, and promising business opportunities. Concerns:
Great Barrier Reef is under threat from coral bleaching, Lack of freshwater and
farmland. Unsure whether it is sustainable to provide food and water to all…read more
Dibden Bay- Southampton Waters
· At Dibden bay there was a controversial proposal of a new container port on an SSSI
site costing £700 million. It was proposed to be built on a Ria, which is a flooded river
valley. The port would take 9 years to build. To solve the conflicts over the proposal a
cost benefit analysis was done. COSTS- Expensive, Water Pollutants, SSSI is a protected
area and at risk of being spoilt from oil spills, it would be built on a near- by Salt Marsh.
Also is near a National Park. It would be better built on an East Coast closer to Europe
(ENVIRONMENTALIST & LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS). BENEFITS- Jobs, bringing in more
money, and employment on the port and linked industry, new industry and
infrastructure. (ECONOMIC STAKEHOLDERS)
Boscombe Surf Reef- Jurassic Coast- Devon- Dorset
· The coastline runs from Dorset to East Devon. In 2001 UNSECO made it a world
heritage site because it is seen as a geological walk through time. It has sand dunes,
small isolated bays and plunging cliffs. Making an area more attractive to tourists. The
CONFLICT came from the new surf reef in 2008. It is 2.5km from Bournemouth and
forces waves to break out at sea and protects the coast from eroding. It cost £1.4
million. Brings 10,000 surfers a year and brings in £10million pounds of economic gain
from tourism. Surfers spend 8% more than other tourists. People who were against the
surf reef were OAP's and other residents, because it brings pollution, traffic and
disturbances. Environmentalists were against it because the sand dunes would be
damaged and were worried that it would decrease biodiversity.…read more
The Holderness is 61km long and the fastest eroding coastline
in Europe, caused by hydraulic action from the sea. It erodes so
quickly because of the weak geology and cliff morphology. Also
the power of the waves is so strong (due to the long fetch from
the Arctic Ocean), these destructive waves also carry material
that causes the cliffs to erode The average rate of erosion is 1.8
m a year, the narrow beaches are less likely to protect the cliffs.
The water is always brown along the Holderness coast; this is
because the clay and mud always gets washed out to sea. The
material is continually being moved south, and that is why many
of the beaches along the Holderness are formed from shingle
and stones. The boulder clay is so soft that it erodes easily and
causes caravan parks to lose an average of 10 pitches a year.
Spurn Head near Easington is an SSSI, because the lagoon is a
colony for over 1% of the British breeding population of little
terns, if this was to erode the lakes would connect to the sea
and the lagoons would be destroyed.…read more