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Coastal Environments
What processes and factors are responsible for distinctive coastal
Coastal Inputs

Marine ­ waves, tides and currents

Geological ­ rock type, structure and tectonics

Atmospheric ­ climate, weather and and climate change

People ­ urban planning, housing, industry, coastal management/defences, leisure

Coastal Processes


Erosion ­ attrition,…

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a rise in fall of the level of the sea. caused by gravitational pull of the moon creating high tide. highest tides
are when sun, moon and earth are in alignment. tide levels are predictable and published in tide tables.

Storm surges - high onshore winds and tides combine…

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producing straigher coast lines and disconcordant where rock types outcrop at right angles produce
headlands and bays.

Resistant rocks
Igneous rocks + sedimentary rocks: Chalk, limestone and sandstone errode slow and produce produce cliff
and head land features. they are coherent, particles are wll connected and few lines of weakness.…

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a coastal area is seen as a system which produces transfers and deposits sediment. It is an open system of
inputs, outputs, stores and transers. There is equillibrium when there is a balance betwewen inputs and
outputs. A positive sediment budger suggests beachers are developing and are stable, a negative…

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3 use the DEFRA criteria for management which is maintain existing defences(hold the line), build
new defences (advance the line), allow the land to flood (managed realignment), no investment in
providing any managment (no active intervention

Integrated Coastal zone management

ICZM is a method of managing not only shoreline but…

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coastline, it does let valuable land be left to erode. This is also a controversial method as those who have
been forced to move are losing land and property.

Beach replenishment
Beach replenishment includes adding more sand and shingle to the beach. This is cheaper than other hard
engineering options,…

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coastal areas provide economical and environmental opportunities, making it a desirable place to live.
A multi- use coastal area: The solent and Southhampton water

southhampton has :

Dibden bay an area of mudflatsand grass lands, and protection of birds
A cruise terminal, uks busiest cruise port handling over 200 cruises…

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The Mediterranean - a coastal area under pressure

The mediterranean coastal zone includes over 20 countries and is homed to 160 million people. The
coastline is 46,000km long. Tourism is a major economic asset, pressure to develop coastal space is intense
as tourism will continue to rise from 190 million…

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Easington gas terminal protected by Revetments
the Eastern side of spurn head is protected by groynes and rock armour.
Schemes locally successful BUT cause problems down drift:
Groynes trap sediment, increasing width of beaches. Protects local area but increases cliff erosion
down drift
reduction in sediment increases risk of flooding…

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A wide walkway with seating areas alongside the sea wall. This is popular with tourists and locals

Soft engineering- The pevensey Bay coastal defence scheme

Stretchs from Eastborn in the west to Bexhill, on sussex coast. SMP recommendations are to Hold the line
(maintain existing defences) because

has over 10,000…


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