Exam Revision Cards

Life as a challenge exam revision cards

  • Created by: Maudleen
  • Created on: 16-04-13 18:49

What is Cystic Fibrosis and give causes

• Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic condition which is acquired at conception and carried on by a recessive gene. Cystic fibrosis is caused if both parents are carriers of the Cystic Fibrosis gene.

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Major symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis:

• Persistent coughing & wheezing.
• Chest infections
• Malnutrition

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Treatments & Practitioners: Cystic Fibrosis

• Gp- Prescribes Antibiotics for recurring chest/lung infections.

• Physiotherapist - Daily physiotherapy for percussion on the chest to dislodge mucus from the lungs. Teach parents how to do percussion.

• Dietician - Provide dietary advice on a diet enriched with protein high in calories, vitamins and pancreatic enzymes.

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Potential impact on person and their family: Cysti

• The most noticeable feature of Cystic fibrosis is a persistent cough. Although it is not contagious, it may be embarrassing in front of other children, especially as a severe coughing attack can lead to vomiting. Parents or other carers may have to come into school to help with daily physiotherapy. Children with Cystic Fibrosis are just as academically able as their peers but hospitalisation or chest infections can result in prolonged absence from school, so they would need extra help when catching up with the rest of the class. Children with Cystic fibrosis may be picked on at school because of their persistent cough and the fact that they may be underweight and small for their age. Physiotherapy is very time consuming, possibly due to the detriment of the child’s social life, though children with CF often find supportive friends who help with care and physiotherapy.

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What is Osteoarthritis & give causes of Osteoarthr

Osteoarthritis is a type of joint disease, it causes pain and stiffness in the joints. It's caused by being overweight, genetics or damaged joints as a result of excessive strain which is caused by obesity.

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Major symptoms of Osteoarthritis:

• Pain & stiffness in joints during movement.
• Grating or grinding sensation when you move the joint.
• Soft or hard swellings

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Treatment & Management: Osteoarthritis

• Gp - Prescribe stronger painkillers - for pain, anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid injections.
• Physiotherapist - For exercise to maintain independence through improving your mobility, strength and flexibility.
• Consulted surgeon - For replacement surgery.
• Complimentary therapy - Complimentary therapy and alternative therapy to help with treatment and slow down the progress of the disease.

Aids & Adaptions

Walking stick, Pick up aids, Velcro fastening/zip pullers, Hand rail/toilet raisers, Wheel chairs, Stair lifts, Kettle tippers, Plate guards, Wheelchair ramp.

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Potential impact on person and their family: Osteo

• Normal daily tasks can become difficult as the person would be in pain, while managing family life and juggling work which can be exhausting. Some people with arthritis find it life challenging but they can receive support. People who suffer with osteoarthritis can continue to carry on working as it makes them feel better. Emotionally their self esteem will be affected as they would have to ask for help and this will affect them psychologically as they won’t be independent.

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What is Alzheimer's & give causes of Alzheimer's:

• Alzheimer's is a form of dementia. It is a decline in the way the brain functions. It affects part of the brain that controls the memory and also behaviour. It is caused by increasing age (old age). Lifestyle factors and conditions which are associated with vascular disease. Abnormal amounts of protein and fibres in the brain, this reduces the effectiveness of healthy neurones in the brain.

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Major symptoms of Alzheimer's:

• Incontinence
• Disorientation
• Change in personality
• Verbal aggression

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Treatment & Management: Alzheimers

• Provision of personal care and supervision.
• Social worker - Do a needs assessment, check whether the person can drive safely, whether they have a support system such as family & friends, whether they need any financial assistance.
• Occupational therapists - Can give advice on adaptations and equipment that may help a person with dementia, and on ways of maintaining their independence for as long as possible.
The occupational therapists  will aim to help them live as independently as possible. Support can be provided in many different ways. For example:
• grab bars and handrails which would be added around their home, for example, to help them get in and out of the bath
• an occupational therapist can identify problem areas in their everyday life, such as dressing themselves, and help them to work out practical solutions.

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Potential impact on family: Alzheimers

• Anger (Emotional) - Angry at having to be a caregiver, angry with others who do not seem to be helping out, angry at the person with dementia for his/her difficult behaviour and angry at support services.
• Teenagers - Younger family me members may not get the attention that they need, or the illness is not explained in a way that they can understand. Children experience a wide range of emotions when a parent or grandparent has Alzheimer's disease. Younger children may be fearful that they will get the disease or that they did something to cause it. Teenagers may become resentful if they must take on more responsibilities or feel embarrassed that their parent or grandparent is "different". They would experience fear, irritation or embarrassment, or boredom at hearing the same stories and questions over and over again - perhaps mixed with guilt about feeling that way, confusion about 'role reversal': having to be responsible for someone who in the past was responsible for them, a sense of loss if their relative doesn't seem to be the same person that they  were, or because it isn't possible to communicate with them on the usual way any longer, anger or rejection if other family members are under pressure and seem to have less time for them than they had before.
• Guilt - It is quite common to feel guilty - guilty for the way the person with dementia was treated in the past, guilty at feeling embarrassed by their odd behaviour, guilty for lost tempers or guilty for not wanting the responsibility of caring for a person with dementia. If the person with dementia goes into hospital or residential care then they may feel guilty for not keeping the person at home for longer, even though everything that could have been done has been done. It is common to feel guilty about past promises such as "I'll always look after you", when this cannot be met.

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Impact on the person: Alzheimers

• As dementia is an illness that affects the brain, it can has a big impact on a person's behaviour. It can make them feel anxious, lost, confused and frustrated. Increasingly they will need more assistance as it progresses. This can have a huge effect on the person and their lifestyle. Gradual me memory loss is an element of dementia. Short term memory is affected first and as the disease progresses long term memory may be impaired. The person may no be able to learn or retain new information easily; this can cause the person to become frustrated as they cannot remember things. The person would be disorientated as they may not know what time period they are in, where they are, and would not be able to recognise their family. Impact on the person is that they may feel lost and insecure. They may first how to do tasks d everyday living such as getting dressed or brushing their hair. The persons personal cleanliness and appearance may decline. The person may forget I eat, they may become ill as a result of poor hygiene or lack of food and drink. They may forget how to find their way to the toilet, how to undo their clothing, or how to use the toilet. They may not even recognise the urge to go to the toilet. The person may become isolated and fearful as a result of their condition. A person with dementia may be at risk because they no longer recognise dangers such as traffic. Some people with dementia wander as a means if activity, whilst others have a strong sense of purpose to be somewhere such as their childhood home.

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What is Bipolar & give causes of Bipolar:

• Bipolar is known as a manic depression condition that effects a persons moods, which can swing from one extreme to another. If a person has a bipolar disorder, they will have episodes of:
* Depression - Where you feel very low and lethargic.
* Mania - Where you feel very high and energetic. Causes of bipolar are if a person has a chemical imbalance in the brain & genetics - if family members have the condition. Triggers, stressful circumstance, physical, sexual or emotional abuse.

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Symptoms of Bipolar (Depression):

• Feeling sad & hopeless
• Difficulty concentrating and remembering things
• Suicidal thoughts
• having hallucinations and disturbed or illogical thinking.
• Difficulty sleeping

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Symptoms of Bipolar (Mania):

• Feeling happy, elated or overjoyed.
• Talking very quickly
• Full of energy
• Elogical thinking
• Not eating
• Spending large amounts of money on unaffordable things and not worrying about it.
• Not sleeping
• Feeling self - important
• Getting distracted

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Treatment & Management: Bipolar

• Gp - Prescribe medication to prevent episodes of mania and depression, mood stabilisers taken everyday. Medication to treat main symptoms of depression. Psychological treatment - therapy, Cognitive behavioural therapy, lifestyle change.

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Impact of Biploar:


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What is Down syndrome & give causes of Down syndro

• Down Syndrome is a genetic condition where a person inherits a copy of one chromosome. People with the chromosome syndrome usually have three copies of the syndrome rather than the two. Down syndrome can also cause some levels of learning disability. Causes of Down syndrome is being born with an extra chromosome. Another cause is if the age of the woman when she is pregnant.

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Major signs & symptoms of Down syndrome:

• Flat facial profile - Eyes slant upwards.
• Smaller ears
• Protruding tongue
• Gut problems
• Hearing & sight problem
• Severe learning disabilities
• Weak muscles
• Short, stocky arms & legs
• Bone, muscle, nerve or joint problems.

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Treatment & Management: Downsyndrome

• Physiotherapist - Help child from a young age to improve range of movement (helping child sit up, learn to roll over or walk).
• Speech therapist - Speech therapist to help child communicate more effectively.
• Gp - Deal with any problems child may have & some day to day management.
• Paediatrician - Doctor will help to co-ordinate the different types of treatment the child may need.

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Impact on development: Down syndrome

• Children with a Down syndrome display major or minor differences in their physical structure. They have shorter limbs, a poor muscle tone and an abnormally larger space between the first and the second toes. All children with Down’s syndrome suffer a degree of developmental difficulty; children with Down’s syndrome tend to develop slower than other children and they have trouble learning new concepts and retaining information. The extent of the learning difficulties depends on the individual; some people only have mild learning difficulties, while others are affected more severely. Children with Down’s syndrome often develop more slowly than other children, in terms of both physical growth and mental development.

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What is Autism & give causes of Autism

• Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with and relates to other people. People who suffer with autism struggle to make sense of the world, this can cause them considerable anxiety. Causes of autism can be described in two ways, primary ASD (Genetic mutations, Environmental factors, Psychological factors, Neurological factors) & Secondary ASD (Fragile X syndrome, Tuberous sclerosis, Rett syndrome), Multiple genes, Brain development condition.

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Treatment & Management of Autism:

• Communication skills - Such as the ability to start conversations.
• Social interaction skills - Such as the ability to understand other people's feelings and respond to them.
• Cognitive skills  - Such as encouraging imaginative play.
• Academic skills - The "traditional" skills that a child needs to progress with their education, such as reading, writing and maths.

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Impact of living with Autism:

• The impact on autism and the family is that it can put a tremendous emotional, financial and physical strain on the parents. The parents would feel guilty that their child is missing out on and not knowing how best to help their child this could make them feel stressed. One of the child's parents would not be able to work which would out a massive financial burden on them. As their child is autistic the child would have difficulty sleeping and would need constant supervision which would be physically exhausting. As the child grows up they would become too strain to handle especially if the child was to throw a tantrum. The child's parent would become isolated and depressed. The child's siblings, too, would suffer from being in a very stressful environment, unable to socialise because of the difficulties at home and unable to go out as a family. They may need to become carers for their brother/sister in an effort to help their parents and they would also suffer from neglect as their parents would spend more time with the child who suffers from Autism.

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Provisions the primary school would make:

• Children who suffer from autism would need to get support from the school. The school will assign the child with a special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) at the school, his progress would also be monitored. The SENCO will also draw up an individual Education plan (IEP) which should be reviewed regularly - ideally every term. The SENCO will also work with other professionals to get the right package of support for the child. The child's parents should also play an important part in developing the IEP, and the child's views should also be considered.

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What is a young carer?

• A young carer is someone ages 18 or under who helps to look after a relative who has a disability, illness, mental health condition, or drug or alcohol problem. The majority of young carers look after one if their parents or care for a brother sister. They do jobs in and around the home, such as cooking, cleaning, or helping someone to get dressed and move around.

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Impact of being a young carer on emotional and soc

• Being a young carer can be very time consuming and demanding. The young carer will be less likely to be able to have time and opportunities to participate in "normal" children's activities, like playing sports or spending time with their friends. This might have an impact on their emotional and physical well-being. They will have to do the normal daily activities that the person they are caring for wont be able to so as a result of their condition such as shopping, cleaning and cooking. The young carer will be very tired because they would have to spend a lot of time worrying about he person they are caring for which could stop them from sleeping well at night. As a result of their lack of sleep they won't be able to concentrate at school. The young carer would also be worried about what's happening happening at home, and would also feel angry towards the person he/she to care for as he/she constantly have to look after them, they would also feel neglected by the person they would have to be caring for as they would have to take on the role of being a carer. The young carer would also feel guilty for even having these feelings towards the person who they have to take care of.

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Name and describe one barrier faced by the young c

• One barrier that a young carrier will face would be towards their education. This is because they would be so busy a home having to take care of the adult and then having to take care of themselves. They would be tired and stressed because they would constantly be having to worry about the person they're caring for. The young carer would be behind on their school work and would miss days off school as they would have to stay home and be a carer. The person the young carer is looking for wont be able to attend the young carers parents evening and wouldn't be able to provide support with the young carers education. The school that the young carer attends will provide a place for them to forget about caring responsibilities and feel 'normal' for a while. But it could also be a place where they would feel under pressure as people would not understand what their life outside of school is like. It would also sometimes be hard for them to juggle all their responsibilities as a young carer with the demands of teachers, friends and homework.

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Suggest three risks which may occur in the young c

• Stress
• Isolation
• Self-harm

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Analyse one source of support that may be availabl

• One source of support that may be available for the young carer would be the teachers at their school. The teachers would be there to offer support and help to the young carer to help them get the most out of school. The teachers would also be there for the young carer to speak about any problems they would be facing. If the young carer was angry in school, missing lessons as they would have to stay home to look after the person they are caring for at home, or struggling to hand work in on time, the young carer might benefit from talking to a teacher at their school. The young carer would be allowed to use there phone during break time and lunch time so they can check up on the person they are caring for.

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