six key categories developed by Labov which appear in narrative- generally in a set order.
an evaluative comment outside the narrative sequence.
an evaluative comment occurring at the same time as events in the narrative sequence.
adding detail and vividness.
explaining reasons for narrative events.
the analysis of structure and features of conversation.
two utterances by different speakers which have a natural and logical link, and complete an idea together; a simple structure of two turns.
a series of turns between speakers.
the sharing of speaking roles, usually cooperatively.
a triadic structure in speech that allows the first speaker to feed back on the response of a second speaker.
an additional sequence in the body of an exchange structure.
Transition Relevance Point:
a point at which it is natural for another speaker to take a turn.
the control of the conversation in terms of speaking and topic.
those who hold some degree of status in a conversation and can to some extent control its direction and the potential of speakers to contribute.
The way texts are organised and put together.
logical progression through stages, use of imperative verbs to instruct, guide.
Identifies a problem
Breaks down key ideas into constituen parts
evaluates and explores
Details a series of events, can be chronological or non-chronological
Six-part structure for oral narrative-
Abstract- indication narrative is about to start and the speaker wants the listeners attention.
Orientation- the 'who', 'where', 'what' and 'why' of the narrative. This set the scene and provides further contextual information for the listener.
Complicating action- the main body providing a range of narrative detail.
Resolution- the final events and 'rounding off' to give the narrative closure.
Evaluation- additions to the basic story, to highlight attitudes or to command the listeners' attention at important moments.
Coda- a sign that the narrative is complete. This might include a return to the initial time frame before the narrative.