- Lexis means vocabulary of a spoken language - the total stock of words
- When you're analysing spoken and written language you'll notice words that share a similar topic or focus. For example, in an advert for mobile phones you'd find words such as SMS, text-messaging and battery life. Words that are linked together in this way are known as a lexical field.
- Semantics is the study of how meaning is created through words and phrases. Sometimes the meaning is implicit. A word will have a literal meaning but can also be associated with other meanings
- For example, the word red, refers to a colour, but it can also be associated with danger.
Grammar is the system of rules that governs how words and sentences are constructed.There are three parts to this:
1) A system that groups words into clauses according to their function (e.g. nouns or verbs).
2) A system that rules about how these types of words function in relation to each other (syntax).
3) The individual units that make up whole words (morphology).
- Phonology is the study of sounds in English - how they're pronounced and how they're combined to make words.
This framework included Non-Verbal Aspects of Speech (NVAS) or prosody - features of spoken language such as pace, stress, rhythm and intonation.
- Pragmatics is sometimes called language in use. It's about how social conventions, context, personality and relationships influence the choices people make about their language.
- For example, how you address other people shows levels of formality and social conventions - a student might address a teacher as Miss Rogers or as Lizzie depending on what the school expects, and what the teacher find acceptable.
- Graphology is the study of the appearance of the writing and the effect this has on a text.
- When you discuss a text's graphology you describe and analyse features like the typeface, the positioning of text on a page and the relationship between text and images
- Discourse is an extended piece of spoken or written language, made up of more than one utterance (in spoken language), or one sentence (in written language)