General principles of utilitarianism
Teleological ethical system based on the pleasure generated by an action. Act utilitarianisms have a situationist approach whilst rule utilitarians refer to rules to create the greater good.
BENTHAM created act Utilitarianism:
-principle of utility: greatest good for the greatest number
-theory of motivation: 2 sovereign masters
-the hedonic calulus:
MILL refined Bentham's argument:
-higher and lower (base) pleasures
-Mill's aphorism "better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrtes dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"
Mill is associated with rule utilitarianism because he believed that experience was valuable but saw rules more as guidance than absolutes.