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General principles of utilitarianism

Teleological ethical system based on the pleasure generated by an action. Act utilitarianisms have a situationist approach whilst rule utilitarians refer to rules to create the greater good.

BENTHAM created act Utilitarianism:

-principle of utility: greatest good for the greatest number

-theory of motivation: 2 sovereign masters

-the hedonic calulus:








MILL refined Bentham's argument:

-higher and lower (base) pleasures

-harm principle

-Mill's aphorism "better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrtes dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"

Mill is associated with rule utilitarianism because he believed that experience was valuable but saw rules more as guidance than absolutes.

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