Energy Security

Energy Secuirty USA, Energy Mix, Access to Energy, China- New Economic Giant, Connections & Geopolitics, Race for New Resources

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Energy Security- USA: Case Study 1: USA

Why Is USA in Energy Crisis?

Oil is used in every sector of the economy - price rises make everything more expensive

Obtains most oil from Middle East - 9/11 caused concern over dependence

Consumption

2007- consumed 23.8% of world's oil

3 main needs... (oil & natural gas)

  • Electricity
  • Transport
  • Heating

Price

1996-2006 = barrel of oil rose from $20-$60

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Energy Security- USA: Case Study 2: California

  • Lowest per capita energy consumption rate - mild weather = no heating
  • Produces 5% of USA's total electricity
  • More registered vehicles than any other state

Blackouts

  • Energy market = privatised - maximise profits, cut costs & pay dividends
  • Provision of infrastructure  = £££
    • Energy companies won't invest & cope with increasing demand

Influencing Factors

  • 1) Weather in 2000-2001 - 2000 was 3rd year of drought, unusually hot = electricity of air con, winter unusually cold = demand for heating
  • 2) Insufficient generating capacity - strong anti-pollution energy laws
  • 3) Limited capacity of power lines to import electricity
  • 2000-2001 - 'Pacific Gas & Electric' & 'Southern California Edison' forced to cut-off electricity supplies to conserve limited stocks.
  • 2003 - Arnold Schwarzenegger - conserve supplies, seek alternatives
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Access to Energy: Case Study 1: The UK

UK's Energy Sources

  • Natural Gas - 36.8%
  • Coal - 35.2%
  • Nuclear - 20.9%
  • Renewable - 4.2%
  • Other - 2.9%

E.On

  • Build 2 new coal-fired power stations
  • Claim they will be 20% cleaner
  • Controversial

Location

  • Atlantic Ocean & North Sea = best wind, wave & tidal power resources
  • River Severn = 2nd highest tidal range in world (14m)
  • Barrage = £15 billion, 10 miles long, meet 5% demand
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China- New Economic Giant: Case Study 1: China

  • World's 2nd largest energy consumer 
  • Controls 3% of world's oil reserves (was self-sufficient until 1993)
  • Steep rise in energy consumption
    • Not only by economic growth, but urbanisation & car ownership
      • 1000 new cars arrive in Beijing every day 
  • Coal
    • Biggest producer & consumer
    • Coal = 75% of electricity generation
    • 3 new coal-fired power stations a week
    • Coal- cheap, dirty ("clean" power stations - expensive & necessary)
    • Located in North West but 71% of demand is South East 
  • HEP
    • 16% of energy production
    • Three Gorges Dam (25 gigawatts of electricity)
    • Plan to build on major rivers - environmentalists & neighbours :\
  • Oil
    • Production peaked... therefore... Exploration for new fields
    • Failed to attract investors- remote location & difficult geology
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China- New Economic Giant: Case Study 2: Japan & S

Strait of Malacca

Japan & China's oil imports pass through here

500 miles long & 1.5 miles wide

Danger from pirate attacks (150 in 2003) & haze of bush fires - collisions

500,000 ships a year

Japan

Dependency = 80%

Largest Asian economy and smallest energy reserves

99% of oil & gas is imported

Since collapse of Soviet Union, want to reduce dependence on Middle East

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Energy Connections & Geopolitics: Case Study 1: Ea

  • 2,600 miles long
  • Originally...
    • Through where last wild Amur Leopards live
    • Too close to lake Baikal (largest freshwater lake) - oil spills = disaster
  • Route was changed (north = £££) - safety, logistical & environmental
  • Rising steel prices & challenges of building in permafrost = £££ :(
  • Russia has new energy pathway - can export :)
  • Russian, Chinese & Japanese governments competing for access...
    • China - energy to fuel economic growth, energy security, 80% through Strait of Malacca, China & Russia  = political interest.
    • Japan - almost no reserves of its own, 3rd largest consumer, reduce dependence on Middle East by 10-15%, engage with Russia to increase economic & political influence.
    • Russia & China share a border = :) relationship is vital (Russia sees China- threat & rival), Russia reluctant to commit too heavily.
    • Japan = offered to finance $7bn, including a spur to run into China.
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Energy Connections & Geopolitics: Case Study 2: Ga

Moscow

World's largest gas supply company

  • Controls ⅓ gas reserves
  • 25% of EU's natural gas
  • Employs 432,000
  • Russian Federation Government owns 50.002% of shares
    • Retains close links with the state

Russia...

  • Economic power lies in key natural resources- energy = political tool
  • Helped re-assert influence over former soviet states
  • Helped regain geopolitical importance
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Energy Connections & Geopolitics: Case Study 3: Eu

Worried about energy security...

YES

  • Amount of gas Russia supplies to EU (most piped through Ukraine)
  • 2006 - flow of gas to EU fell by 40%

NO

  • Exports markets to W. Europe = too valuable to lose
  • Even during Cold War - supply of gas was stable
  • Gazprom helping to secure EU's energy supplies with construction of new pipelines bypassing Ukraine
    • Nord Stream Pipeline - run along sea bed - no transit countries - less political interference
  • EU looking at alternative sources- could take years
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The Race For New Resources: Case Study 1: Arctic R

  • 2007 - Russia planted flag on seabed
  • Claim that Lomonosov Ridge is an extension of their land mass
  • Arctic...
  • Contains 25% of world's unexploited oil & gas reserves
  • China & India demand more oil to fuel development - price increased
    • $70 a barrel makes drilling in the Arctic viable
  • Environmental View
  • Already wreaked havoc on Alaska & Siberia
  • Ruin the environment - search for renewables, not fossil fuels
  • Only possible due to shrinking of polar ice caps - global warming :\
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The Race For New Resources: Case Study 2: Tar Sand

...Bituminous sands & heavy oil - Venezuela. Naturally occurring mix of sand / clay & water & very dense petroleum Bitumen...

Found in...

  • Canada 
  • Venezuela

Why Tar?

  • Oil prices & demand is increasing
  • Oil industry has spent $86 billion on frontier hydrocarbons
  • Below Alberta's forests = oil reserves - tar - 180 billion barrels
  • Extracting is not easy or cheap
    • Oil prices risen
  • By 2030 - expect to produce >50 million a day
    • Export more than Nigeria & Venezuela
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Comments

LazerScythe

This is great thanks, excellent summary of the Parrot/Globe book!

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