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ENERGY SYSTEMS

OXIDATIVE ENERGY SYSTEM

  • uses carbohydrates (glycolysis and fats) primary energy
  • during the act of glycolysis 2 ATP are created pyruvic acid is also created
  • carbohydrates - glucose - glycogen (2 hours until runout) this is when the athlete hits a wall
  • after glycogen runs out fats are used instead, however it uses more O2 this is beta oxidisation
  • less O2 available for working muscles causes a dip in performance

ATP SYSTEM LASTS FOR A MAXIMUM OF 10 SECONDS

LACTATE SYSTEM LAST FOR 10 SECONDS TO 2 MINUTES

OXIDATIVE SYSTEM LASTS 2-2 AND A HALF HOURS AFTER THE LACTATE SYSTEM FINISHES OR UNTIL THERE IS NO MORE FAT

  • water and CO2 are bi-products of the oxidative system
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ENERGY SYSTEMS

LACTATE SYSTEM

  • the lactate system happens in the absence of oxygen anaerobic system
  • as the need for energy increases the process has to speed up
  • here are not enough enxymes to transfer pyruvate into the mitochondria and not enough O2 to keep up with the KREB cycle H+
  • the extra pyruvate is converted into lactic acid

ATP-PC SYSTEM phosphocreatine

  • the body turns food sources into ATP and the breakdown of ATP is where tissue gets its energy from
  • the ATP-PC system takes 2-3 minutes for the PC system to recover
  • it lasts a maximal time of 8-10 seconds
  • phosphocreatine resynthesises ADP into ATP but theres only a certain amount of PC in my store
  • ATP-PC has the most amount of energy for the least amount of time
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ENERGY SYSTEMS

ATP-PC SYSTEM phosphocreatine

  • for short-term high intensity exercise a large amount of energy is needed quickly
  • the breakdown of phosphoreatine goes into creatine and phosphate causes energy to resynthesise one molecule of ATP
  • at rest you use 2 ATP every 2 seconds in order to survive
  • not all energy from the ATP bond break goes to the contraction of mucsles e.g body temp

LACTATE THRESHOLD

  • this is the amount of intensity you can do before you go into the lactate energy system
  • HOW TO IMPROVE THRESHOLD -- high altitude training, glycogen loading, EBP illegal drug
  • if the O2 does not keep up with the H+, the athlete will go over the lactate threshold
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ENERGY SYSTEMS

KREB CYCLE

  • this whole system only works in low levels of workout
  • if the athlete goes over the threshold, the system will shut down and the pyruvate will turn to lactic acid
  • acetyl co enzyme starts the KREB cycle, 
  • occurs in the mitochondria "powerhouse of the cell"
  • by products of the KREB cycle are CO2, 2 ATP, H++, H2O

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC)

  • 34 ATP are created through the KREB cycle process and the ETC, in total there are 38 ATP the 2 extra are by products from the cycle
  • for every H+ you need an oxygen molecule, if there is no O2 molecule to combine then the hydrogen will combine with pyruvic acid which will turn into lactic acid
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EFFECTS OF TRAINING

AEROBIC EXERCISE:

  • cardiac hypertrophy
  • decreased resting heart rate
  • increased blood volume haemoglobin
  • increase of glycogen sores within the muscle
  • increase size and number of mitochondria
  • if the mitochondria get bigger or multiply - more energy - more conractions

O2 CONSUMPTION

  • this is the amount of O2 used t oproduce ATP
  • when we need more ATP we need more O2 -- therefore our oxygen consumption increases
  • when the amount of O2 being consumed is lower than what is required -- oxygen deficit
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EFFECTS OF TRAINING

LACTATE THRESHOLD/OBLA

  • onset blood lactate accumulation
  • you would normally exercise at a steady state (the period where exygen consumption matches the energy being used) 
  • this is linked to thelactate threshold and OBLA

FAST COMPONENT

  • alactacid--non lactic acid
  • restores muscle ATP + PC stores by resaturating myoglobin
  • endothermic - takes in heat
  • breaks down fats and glycogen aerobically
  • 2-3 minutes for 100% recovery and utilises 4 litres of oxygen
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EFFECTS OF TRAINING

SLOW COMPONENT

  • lactacid lactic acid
  • this is the removal of lactic acid
  • it converts lactic acid into pyruvate
  • pyruvate makes co enyme a, which starts the KREB cycle aerobically (oxidising pyruvate)
  • CO2 + water (lactic acid broken down)
  • 60% of fuel you use will come from resynthesised pyruvate
  • converted to glycogen
  • converted to protein -- urinated out

LACK OF O2 AND MORE CO2 -- PYRUVATE CHANGES TO LACTIC ACID

LACK OF CO2 AND MORE O2 -- LACTIC ACID CHANGES TO PYRUVATE

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EFFECTS OF TRAINING

RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO

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EFFECTS OF TRAINING

RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO

  • method of measuring which fuel is being used by the body during exercise - the respiratory quotient (RQ)
  • gives a value of the ratio between the amount of O2 used by the body and carbon dioxide produced

RER at rest - 0.8

RER whilst fat is the energy source - 0.7

RER whilst fat and carbohydrates are the energy source - 0.85

RER whilst carbohydrate is the primary energy source - 1.0 and above

RER when the body is nearing exhaustion - 1.1

  • if we can measure the ratio between CO2 and O2 we can determine what energy source is being used
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ALTITUDE TRAINING

ACCLIMATISATION: 3-10 DAYS

  • athlete arrives at high altitude and gets used to low partial pressure of O2. They cannot undergo exhaustive training. Athletes will need longer recovery periods between training sessions.

PRIMARY TRAINING: 1-3 WEEKS

  • aim to progressively raise training volume until athlete equal their standard quantity and intensity of training from before, due to environmental differences and less O2 availability it may not be possible to reach or sustain regular intensity or volume of training.

RECOVERY: 2-5 DAYS

  • preparation for return to sea level/recovery time from fatigue produced by high altitude training (e.g tapering)
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ALTITUDE TRAINING

INCREASING THE MASS OF RED BLOOD CELLS AND HAEMOGLOBIN

  • at high altitudes there is a decrease in oxygen haemoglobin saturation (disassociation curve)
  • to compensate the body reacts by boosting the production of ERYTHOPOIETIN (EPO) a hormone secreted by the kidneys ("deviance in sport")
  • EPO stimulates red blood cells production in the bone marrow and therefore increases haemoglobin saturation in the red blood cells and ocygen delivery to the workling muscles.

some athletes have been born and bred at high altitudes, and will only travel down to sea level for competitions

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ALTITUDE TRAINING

WHAT HAPPENS NEXT:

POSITIVE PHASE: 1-4 DAYS AFTER RETURN

  • increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood due to EPO (increase)

PROGRESSIVE PHASE: 4-19 DAYS AFTER RETURN

  • athlete gradually returns to regular sea level training volume and intensity (during this time, the likelihood of good performance during competition is low - probably due to reduced levels of fitness and coordination losses from training at altitude)

FINAL STAGE: 15-20 DAYS AFTER RETURN

  • fitness peak and optimal time for competition. training is as normal and fitnessboosted back whilst still enjoying raised O2 transport and improved economy/maintenance of breathing adaptation then what there would be without altitude training.
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ALTITUDE TRAINING

"LIVE-HIGH TRAIN-LOW"

this involves living at high altitudes in order to experience the physiological adaptations that occur (such as raised EPO, raised red blood cells and haemoglobin count, rise in VO2 max)

PROS:

  • raised levels of EPO
  • raised red blood cells and the amount of haemoglobin available
  • is these levels are utilised during competition, the athlete will have a natural advantage as additional O2 will be available for respiration at the working muscles

CONS:

  • athletes red blood cell concentration returns to normal within days of returning
  • excessively expensive - flights - lodging etc.
  • wasted training and time on travel and acclimitisation
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SPECIALISED TRAINING

PLYOMETRICS

  • involves high intensity, explosive muscular contractions that will engage stretch reflex
  • this is only for people who move their own weight; sprinter, high jump, long jump *(type 2b fibres - glycolic fibres

plyometrics need to be done over a period of time for them to learn how to react

PROS: boost performance, increase power, develop muscle groups

CONS:  higher risk of injury, age, gender, prior training, specific resources and equipment

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INJURY PREVENTION

ACUTE INJURIES - happens due to a sudden trauma to the body

  • fractures
  • dislocations
  • strains + sprains

CHRONIC INJURIES - result of a continuous stress on an area

  • achilles tendonitis
  • stress fracture
  • "tennis elbow"

 

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INJURY PREVENTION

FRACTURES - (acute and chronic)

  • caused by one-time injury to the bone - acute fracture
  • repeated stress on the bone over time - stress fracture
  • most are classified as emergencies and may even need surgery to conpletely repair
  • stress fractures mostly effect the legs and feet from sports that cause repetitive impact - jumping or running

DISLOCATIONS - acute

  • occurs when force pushes the bones in a joint out of alignment
  • dislocations are also known as luxations
  • contact sports such as football or rugby or activity such as excessive stretching or falling can cause dislocations
  • a dislocated bone can be put back into place however the tissue surrounding may have severe damage
  • most common dislocations are in the fingers, hand and shoulder (other are less common)
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INJURY PREVENTION

SPRAIN - acute

  • the most common type of injury in sport by far (any activity)
  • occurs when a ligament tears or overstretches - can range from minor, to complete tears where the ligament severs
  • most common in wrists, ankles or knees

SPRAINS -acute

  • pulled muscle, or when fibres in a muscle or tendon stretch too far
  • also range from minor to severe

ACHILLES TENDONITIS

when muscles contract they help to move the bones and joints, tendonitis is an over-use injury that causes pain and inflammation of the tendon

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INJURY PREVENTION

"TENNIS ELBOW"

  • an overuse injury that occurs in the muscles attatched to the elbow that are used to straighten the wrist
  • the muscles and tendons become inflamed and tiny tears occur on the outside of the elbow
  • otherwise known as lateral epicondylitis

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

  • protect from impact injuries e.g. cricket helmet, gloves
  • thermo-regulation clothing -- staying warm and dry
  • staying cool - synthetic micro fibres, allows sweat to "wick" away
  • taying warm - wind proof, base layers
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INJURY PREVENTION

SCREENING

  • vital mechanism to support injury prevention, and those at risk of complications
  • professional performers conduct periodic "health checks" to assess muscle imbalances, core strength and range of movement at key joints -- problems are detected immediately
  • CRY screening (cardiac risk in the young) ECG (electrocardiogram) is used to assess and monitor a performers heart and provide information reporting its function/effectiveness

DISADVANTAGES

  • some screening tets are not 100% accurate and may not diagnose a problem (false negative)
  • or they can identify a problem which does not exist (false positive)
  • the tests can also increase anxiety levels in a performer who finds out they have a potential health problem
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INJURY PREVENTION

TAPING AND BRACING

  • prevent ligament injuries, relieves muscular tension 
  • knee and elbow bracing to provide extra stability around the joint
  • must be adjustable to not restrict movement
  • warm up is vital for injury prevention
  • stages -- pulse raiser/stretcher/skill practice/mental preparation
  • release of synovial fluid/increases O2/vascular shunting

STRENGTH TRAINING

  • reduce performers suceptibility to injury
  • core strength/stability exercises
  • maintain correct alignment
  • free weights - dummbells
  • machine weight - good in early injury stage - assumes control
  • body weight - plank - balance and posture
  • therabands - latex bands - post injury (light rehabilitation)
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INJURY PREVENTION

HYDROTHERAPY

  • performed in 35-37 degrees - increases bloof flow, used to maintain cardiovascular fitness through the recovery period. the body weighs about 10% of it's land weight in water - no stress put on injured muscles/joints
  • reduces the load on joints.
  • running action in joints, may also be squats, or treadmills

HYPERBARIC CHAMBER

  • air tight chamber that can stimulate air pressure at altitude or at depth
  • boosts white blood cell activity in damaged parts of the body
  • -reduces blood flow to the injured region, controlling injections 
  • REDUCES RECOVERY TIME

EXCEEDING - chambers are 100% oxygen delivery, diffuse more O2 into the body - injured area

-the excess O2 dissolves into blood plasma where it can reduce swelling, stimulating white blood cell production, and increase blood supply at the injury site

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INJURY PREVENTION

CRYOTHERAPY

  • RICE -- rest, ice, conpress and elevate used for soft tissue injuries

RECOVERY METHODS FOR EXERCISE

  • massage -- release of muscle tension - increasing blood flow - reduces lactic acid, and also breaks down scar tissue
  • foam rollers -- self-massaging, release muscle tension/tightness - prevent injury and increase mobility (body weight)
  • cryotherapy -- cooling measures used to treat chronic or acute injuries - ice baths are used as post-match recovery in contact sports - cryogenic chambers used for treatment of muscle and joint pain - liquid nitrogen cooled to temp of -110 degrees C
  • replenishing energy stores -- it is important to replenish the carbohydrate and the glycogen stores after exercise - performers should aim to eat 1.5-3g per kg of carbs - the goal is to consume at least 50g shortly after exercise
  • sleep -- support the bodies immune system - sleep can also strengthen bones - NON REM SLEEP, you want to have dep sleep in order to have a good nights sleep
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

  • our world is governed by TIME three dimensions in space: up & down / left &right / back &forth
  • some things do not depend on direction (volume of a container)
  • some things do depend on direction (location of a container)

VECTOR IS DEPENDANT ON DIRECTION

SCALAR IS NOT DEPENDANT ON DIRECTION

VECTOR QUANTITIES HAVE TWO CHARACTERISTICS:

  • magnitude (size) and direction

when comparing 2 vectors of the same type, you must compare both the magnitude and direction

displacement is the action or movement of something FROM ITS START POSITION

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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

two vector quantities most applied in sport are:

  • velocity - displacement (m) / time (s) = metres per second
  • acceleration - change in velocity (ms) / time (s) = metres per second per second (ms2)

VELOCITY IS SPEED IN A GIVEN DIRECTION, SPEED IS A SPEED IN NO GIVEN DIRECTION

scalar quantities have one characteristic:

physical quantities -- scalar has magnitude only -- vector has magnitude and direction

  • vector quantities are represented by an arrow, which shows the magnitude and direction (same direction = add/opposition direction = minus)
  • no use knowing how  much force is being applied by an athlete without knowing the direction of the force (which will dictate the direction you will travel in)
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

SCALAR QUANTITIES                                                                          

  • speed
  • distance
  • energy
  • density
  • volume
  • length
  • time
  • power

VECTOR QUANTITIES

  • velocity                   momentum and force
  • acceleration
  • displacement
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

PIN DIAGRAM -- shows forces acting on a quantity

  • 4 forces applied to a sprinter:
  • gravity - from midline down to the ground (equal to ground reaction force)
  • ground reaction force - happens at back leg up to the midline of the body (equal to gravity)
  • friction - to drive forwards from back leg
  • air resistance - middle of the body going backwards

the air resistance arrow is small when the athlete leaves the blocks, so the friction arrow has to be huge (he therefore accelerates)

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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

scalar quantities - quantities that just have size

vector quantities - quantities that have size and direction

  • mass - the quantity of matter the body possesses
  • weight - the gravitational force extended on an object
  • distance - measured in metres and is the path a body takes as it moves from the starting to the finishing position
  • displacement - measured in mtres and is the shortest route in a straight line between the starting and finishing position
  • speed - a measurement in metres/second of the body's movement per unit of time with no reference to direction
  • velocity - measured in metres/second and is the rate of change of displacement
  • acceleration - measured in m/s2 and is th rate of change of velocity
  • momentum - momentum (kgm/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

Angular momentum - mass, inertia and momentum

  • mass - mass means the substance. Th more substance from which it is made, the larger the mass
  • inertia - inertia is the reluctance of a body to change it's state of motion. From Newton's first law of motion, we know that a force is required to change this state of motion. Inertia is directly related to mass, so the bigger the mass the larger the inertia of a body and the bigger the force must be to change it's state of motion
  • momentum - the quantity of motion possessed by a body and is quite simply "mass on the move". The amount of momentum possessed by a body depends on the mass and velocity

momentum = mass x velocity (mo=mv)

  • angular momentum is th quantity of rotation. It is also a constant
  • angular momentum = angular of velocity x moment of inertia (if one of these goes down or up, the other one has to do the opposite)
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

  • angular velocity is the speed of rotation
  • moment of inertia is the eluctance to rotate

To increase speed of rotation/angular velocity the performer must decrease moment of inertia. Decrease moment of inertia by tucking body in tight.

To decrease speed of rotation/angular velocity the performer must increase their momentum of inertia. They do this by spreading their mass out (stretching out).

 

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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

Impulse

  • Impulse is the change of momentum of an object when the object is acted upon by a force for a period of time

impulse (newton seconds/ns) = force (n) x time (s)

  • An *increase in impulse will result in an increase in the rate of change of momentum, which causes a large change in velocity. E.g. a tennis player will follow through with the racket to increase the amount of time the racket has contact with the ball. This changes the outgoing momentum of the ball which causes the ball to travel faster. this is also called positive impulse
  • Using impulse to decrease the momentum of an object or body occurs by increasing the time that forces act upon them. E.g. a in gymnastics involves flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. This extends the time that the feet have with the mat and this allows the gymnast to control the landing and reduce chance of injury.
  • negative impulse is important for positive impulse -- friction, for the sprinter to accelerate
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MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT

IMPULSE GRAPHS (1) 0-30m

  • the main impulse it positive because the sprinter is in a streamlined position, and the graph shows the sprinter is accelerating
  • **keep in mind the graph only shows the first steps of the sprinter taking off**
  • whenever the heel touches the ground they are slowing down, but when their foot rocks onto the front of their toes they accelerate again

IMPULSE GRAPH (2) 30-70m

  • no accelaration but constant velocity 
  • positive and negative impulses are equal

IMPULSE GRAPH (3) 70-100m

  • the negative impulse will be the main impulse because the sprinter decelerating
  • his PC stores are running out
  • his heel strikes on the landing are greater at the end of the race 
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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

PROJECTILE MOTION - the movement of either an object or the human body as they travel through the air

HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT (three factors that affect it)

  • angle of release
  • speed of release 
  • height of release

horizontal displacement - the shortest distance from the starting point to the finishing point in a line parallel to the ground

 

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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

ANGLE OF RELEASE

  • angle of release needs to have release height and landing height when both of these are equal, the optimum angle of release is 45 degrees. (example of a long jumper)
  • if the release height is below the landing height then the optimum angle of release needs to be greater than 45 degrees (shooting a basketball into a hoop)
  • if the release height is above the landing height then the optimum angle of release needs to be less than 45 degrees. (shot put throw) release angle would be from 26-38 degrees

SPEED OF RELEASE

  • the greater the release velocity of a projectile the greater the horizontal displacement travelled. For example, in shot put the speed of rotation across the circle ensures that the shot leaves the hand at maximum velocity so a greater horizontal displacement can be achieved
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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

HEIGHT OF RELEASE

  • a greater release height also increases horizontal displacement. Gravity is constantly acting on the shot put therefore the shot putter should aim to release the ball at the highest point possible. This is to gain maximum horizontal displacement

DIFFERENT FLIGHT PATHS OF PROJECTILES

  • parabola - a curve with matching left-and-right-hand sides
  • weight (gravity) and air resistance are two forces that affect projectiles while they are in the air. These two factors decide whether the flight path is a true parabola or a distorted parabola. 
  • **a shot put has a larger mass so there is a longer weight arrow**
  • **a shuttlecock has a lighter mass and an unusual shape that increases its air resistance**
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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

VECTOR COMPONENTS OF PARABOLIC FLIGHT

  • horizontal component - the horizontal motion of an object
  • vertical component - the upward motion of an object

a shot put follows a parabolic flight path and as it is released at an angle to the horizontal, its initial velocity has a horizontal component and a vertical component.

  • a large positive vertical component on release as the shot travels up away from the athlete
  • no vertical component at the highest flight point
  • larger negative vertical component before landing due to the effects of gravity

 

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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

Parabolic and non-parabolic flight curves

  • once in the air projectiles are only usually subject to the forces of gravity and air resistance (although in some activities it is possible to produce a 'lift' force) 
  • as gravity always remains constant, any changes to the velocity to the projectile can be explained by the effects of air resistance
  • for some projectiles the effects of air resistance are minimal and the flight path willbe symmetrical or parabolic
  • for others such as a shuttlecock or a table tennis ball the effects of air resistance are great which causes the projectile to veer away from the normal parabolic path to form an asymmetrical or distorted parabola
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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

in fluid dynamics, laminar flow or streamline flow occurs when a fluid flows parallel layers with no disruption between the layers. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing and adjacent layers slide past each other.

turbulent flow is a type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations or mixing, in contrast to laminar flow, in which the fluid moves in smooth paths or layers. In turbulent flow the speed of the fluid of a point is continuously undergoing changes in both magnitude and direction.

dynamic fluid force fluid dynamics are concerned with the movement of liquids and gases. Drag and lift dynamic fluid forces. These two forces have an effect on a variety of sports such as cycling, sprinting and swimming.

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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

drag force slows something down. Drag is the resistanceforce caused by the motion of a body travelling through a liquid/fluid. A drag force acts in opposition to the direction of motion and therefore has a negative effect on velocity. A drag force is produced from air resistance and friction. A cyclist, for example, will constantly try to minimise drag so they can increase velocity. There are two types of drag:

  • surface drag - relates to friction between the surface of an object and fluid environment . Swimmers wear smooth clothing and shave off body hair to reduce surface drag.
  • form drag - related to the impact of the fluid environment on an object. It is sometimes referred to as "shape drag". The forces affecting the leading edge of an object increase form drag a swimmer will have to keep a straight position to move through the water. A large form drag also offers less turbulence air for anything that is following, e.g. in the slipstream e.g. a cyclist - the wind will hit the front cyclist, going around the sides and the cyclist behind uses the air pocket that has been created. This mans the cyclist behind uses 30% less energy.
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BIOMECHANICAL MOVEMENT

Factors to reduce and increase drag

  • the velocity of the moving body - the greater the velocity of a body through a fluid, the greater the drag force
  • the cross-sectional area of the moving body - the cross-sectional area of amoving body can reduce or increase drag

if a projectile can gain some lfit during its flight, then it will stay in the air longer and therefore achieve a greater horizontal distance

Bernoulli principle - where air molecules exert less pressure the faster they travel and more pressure when they travel slower

lift force - causes a body to move perpendicular to the direction of travel

angle of attack - the tilt of a projectile relative to the air flow

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TECHNOLOGY

research - a systematic process of investigation and study carried out with the aim of advancing knowledge

sports analytics - studying data from sports performances to try to improve performance

quantitative data - data that can be written down or measured precisely and numerically (quantity)

qualitative data - data that is descriptive and looks at the way people think or feel (quality)

objective data - fact-based information which is measurable and usable (e.g. the level achieved on the multi-stage fitness test which links to a VO2 max score)

subjective data - based on personal opinion, which is less measurable and often less usable

validity - an indication of whether the data collected actually measures what it claims to measure

reliability - refers to the degree to which data collection is consistent and stable over time

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TECHNOLOGY

video motion analysis - a technique used to get information about moving objects from video

the process of motion analysis has developed into two distinct sport science disciplines:

notational match analysis - used to record aspects of individual/team performance. Notational analysis takes place through the study of movement patterns, strategy and tactics in a variety of different sports. It is used by coaches and sport scientists to gather objective data on the performace on athletes

biomechanics - used to analyse the sporting impact of body movements. It involves quantitative-based study and analysis of sports activities. (it is sometimes called kinematics - the study of the motion of bodies with respect to time, displacement, velocity and speed of movement)

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TECHNOLOGY

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TECHNOLOGY

performance analysis (PA) - the provision of objective feedback to performers trying to get a positive change in performance. (feedback can be gained on a variety of performance indicators including the number of passes made; distance run in kilometres; number of shots attempted, etc)

metabolic cart - a device which works by attaching headgear to a subject while the person breathes a specific amount of oxygen over a period of time

calorimetry - the measurement of the heat and energy eliminated or stored in any system

indirect calorimetry - the measurement of the amount of heat and energy generated in an oxidation reaction

resting energy expenditure (REE) - the amount of energy, usually expressed in kcal, required for a 24-hour period by the body during rest

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TECHNOLOGY

software and hardware - computer software is any set of machine-readable instructions which direct a computer's processor to perform specific operations. computer hardware is the physical  component of computers

GPS (global positioning system) - a space-based navigation system that provides location and time information

'G' forces - forces acting on the body as a result of acceleration or gravity (e.g. the G-load/force of an american football 'hit' on an opponent)

data integrity - maintaining and ensuring the accuracy and consistency of stored data over its entire lifetime

smart wearable fitness and sports device - device that is worn or attached to a performer's body while in use to provide instant feedback on aspects of performance such as distance covered, heart rate etc

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TECHNOLOGY

vibration technology - vibration training/therapy is also known as whole body vibration (WBV) and an example of its usage invloves the use of vibration plates to induce exercise effects in the body. There are multiple claims that can be given from vibration therapy:

  • improving bone density
  • increasing muscle mass/increased muscle power
  • improving circulation
  • reducing back pain
  • reducing joint pain

electrostimulation - the production of muscle contraction using electrical impulses. this can prevent injuries in the following ways:

  • strengthens and tones the muscles to prevent injury
  • during periods of inactivity, using the electrostimulation will target specific muscle groups and keep fitness levels high
  • gets rid of lactic acid in the body after a training session and at the same time, providing a relaxing effect
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TECHNOLOGY

3G surfaces - third generation artificial synthetic grass pitches. the rubber infill in this surface gives the artificial grass surface playing characteristics similar to those of natural grass

It allows high levels of use in a wide variety of sports and its benefits include the fact that it can be played on more frequently and for longer than natural grass. Synthetic surfaces like this one are also very consistent with conditions, unlike natural grass which can become worn down and unpredictable.

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