Edexcel Unit 1- Going Global (World At Risk)

Edexcel Unit 1-Going Global revision notes

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Global Hazards (1)


  • Geophysical - tectonic/geological events (earthquakes, volcanoesand tsunamis).
  • Hydro-meteorological - formed by hydrological (floods) and atmospheric (storms and droughts) processes.
  • Context hazard - widespread threats (such as climate change or super volcano)
  • Disasters - loss of lives and livelihoods, goods property
  • Risk - probability of hazard occuring and becoming a disaster

 Risk (R) = frequency or magnitude of hazard (H) X level of vulnerability (V)

capacity of population to cope and adapt (C)



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Risk worsening (2)

Why its getting worse?

  • Greenhouse effect
  • Enhanced greenhouse effect
  • Fossil fuels - burning causes carbon dioxide

What could happen?

  • Global dimming

Why its the worlds biggest problem?

  • Effects everyone
  • Chronic (ongoing) hazard
  • unpredictable
  • Indirect impacts


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Reported Disasters (3)

Trends in number of reported disasters

  • Risen sharply since 1960s
  • Floods and stroms accounted for 70% of all disasters for last 40 years
  • Geophysical have increased slightly
  • Biological hazards (bio hazards) - upward trend

Reasons for the increase in disasters

  • Global warming
  • More disasters may be getting reported than missed
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El Nino/La Nina cycle (4)

El Nino/La Nina cycle

  • Cycle effects winds and ocean currents
  • Lasts for 7-10 years
  • 1-2 years are El Nino
  • 1-2 years are La nino

El Nino

  • Very heavy rain in Peru and California
  • Dry in Indonesia and Australia  (2006 drought)
  • Hurricanes in Atlantic reduced

La Nina

  • Very heavy rain in Indonesia and Australia
  • Drought in America (Californian drought and wildfires)
  • Hurricanes in Atlantic increased
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Distribution (5)

Distribution of Earthquakes

  • Clustered on plate boundaries
  • Most powerful are destructive of conservative boundaries
  • Can trigger tsunamis amd landslides

Destructive- oceanic crust is being subducted beneath a continental plate PHILLIPPINES

(or) Where two collide (shallow intermediate and deep earthquakes)

Constructive- plates are moving apart (large numbers of low-magnitude earthquakes) most under the sea

Conservative - Plates slide past each other (shallow earthquakes high magnitude) SAN ANDREAS FAULT

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Distribution (6)

Distribution of Volcanoes

  • Close to plate boundaries


  • Magma reaches earths surface and wells up (ocean ridges)
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Destrictive plate boundaries

  • 80% of most active along destructive boundaries (Mt St Helens)
  • Ring of Fire Phillippines
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Distribution (7)

Distribution of Slides

Mass movements, such as rock slides, debris flows, snow avalanches and rainfall and earthquake enduced slides.


  • Seventh biggest killer
  • 1400 deaths per year
  • Usually in high areas
  • Deforestation doesn't help

Snow Avalanches

  • Concentrated in high mountain areas such as Alpes of New Zealand
  • Tend to occur on slopes above 35 degrees
  • Average of 140 deaths a year
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Distribution (8)

Distribution of Drought and flooding

  • Effects many people in the world
  • Both frequent hazards

Distribution of Storms

Tropical cyclones, mid-lattiude stroms and tornadoes


  • 5-20 degrees north and south of equator
  • Tend to move westward
  • To form -Sea over 26 degrees  of 70m depth 5 degrees north or south of equator for coriolis effect (rotation of air)
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  • Lower-middle income country
  • 91 million population
  • GDP per cpita $5000
  • HDI 0.75
  • Mountainous country, crowded coastal lowlands
  • 7,000 islands very small spread are latitudes between 5 deg. North and 20 deg. South (Typhoon belt)
  • Classic hotspot for Typhoons
  • Mobile plate boundary
  • El Nino/ La Nina cycles increase range of hazards
  • Volcanic eruptions explosive with lahars (mudflows)
  • Earthquakes are common
  • Vulnerability increase by poverty, deforestation, poor land management and rapid urbanisation
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  • Wealthiest state of the USA
  • Popluation of 40 million
  • GDP per capita $40000
  • HDI 0.95
  • Major tectonic hotspot (San Andreas fault)
  • SUbject to Le Nino/ La Nina
  • River floods occur in El Nino years
  • Droughts and Wildfires La Nina years
  • Fogs occur in San Francisco Bay area
  • Landslides frequent
  • Coping capacity high
  • Economic costs highif disaster strikes in a megacity
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Artic Region

Artic Region

  • 3-4 degree rise in temperature in the last 50 years
  • Melting of Greenland Ice sheet
  • Vegetation shifts
  • Thawing Permafrost
  • Increasing  fires and insects
  • Ultraviolet impact
  • Carbon Cycle changes
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  • Has least contribution to global warming
  • Most vulnerable to climate change
  • Climate sensitive resources
  • Rise in temperature of 3-4 degress prediction
  • Water issues
  • Food insecurity
  • Natural resources Health
  • Development of Coastal zones
  • Poverty
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Bethany Cunningham


There is a spelling mistake on one of the targets titles.



Typing mistake :) but, I have changed it now

Sanna Soomro


Much simplified information that I understood every point clearly and it definitely helps me to remember more key points that aren't in this slides - Very GOOD! :D

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