Diabetes - AS 2 - N&FS - CCEA

  • Created by: sarahj123
  • Created on: 17-04-19 23:52

Development

1. Not enough insulin to maintain normal blood glucose

2. Not able to use insulin effectively

  • Glucose ^ - pancreas - does not produce insulin / insulin produced doesn't work = can't help glucose enter cell ( INSULIN RESISTANCE )

 

  • Insulin - hormone - help glucose enter cell ( help digest carbs - made in liver )
  • Insulin doesn't work = cell blocked - Body can't use glucose = build up in blood 
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Symptoms

  • Tired
  • Weight loss
  • Genital itching
  • Slow healing wounds

 

  • Polyurea ( ^ urinating )
  • Polydipsia ( ^ thirst )
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Who at risk

  • White > 40
  • Dark > 25
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrom
  • ^ Blood pressure
  • Overweight
  • Close family member has it
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Increase risk

1. Obesity - Muscle & tissues resist insulin - fat stops body using & control insulin properly 

2. Diet - ^ fat + ^ BP + ^ triglycerides + low HDL + low fibre

3. Genetics - 2-6 x more likely if family member has it

4. Inactivity - inc insulin resistance ( more insulin receptors than  fat cells )

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Dietary advice pt.1

1. 3 meals = don't skip meals - control appetite & glucose

2. Carbohydrates = healthy digestive system + glucose control

3. Fruit & Veg = 5 a day = vitamin & mineral & fibre

4. Beans & Lentils = lower glucose eg. kidney beans

5. Oily fish = omega 3 = protect from heart disease

6. Limit sugar = sugar free 

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Dietary advice pt.2

7. Cut down fat = choose unsat fat / low fat

8. Moderate alcohol = hypoglycaemia ( low glucose lvl )

9. No diabetic food = still affect blood glucose + laxative effect + empty kca;

10. Reduce salt = less processed foods

11. Glycaemic index = low gi help avoid hypos ( even glucose lvl ) + help control appetite + fat & protein & cook method slow down absorption 

12. Dietary Fibre

  • Control blood sugar = high fibre- regulate glucose + insoluble fibre ( slow down glucose rise)
  • Low LDL - soluble = help lower LDL ( soak up like sponge + remove - stop artery damage) 
  • Weight management - help lose weight + absorb fluid ( keep full ) + regulate insulin 
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Lifestyle

1 Medication = tablets ( control glucose ) + injection

2 Exercise = lower blood glucose & BP + control weight + improve insulin use + strengthen muscle + ^ HDL + lower stress ( pancrease release insulin when glucose inc = stimulate muscle & fat cell to take in glucose - lower glucose level )

3 Alcohol = Affect ability to control glucose + lower glucose sensitivity + chronic pancreatitis ( hyper / hypo glycaemia )

4 Keep well = Pneumoccocal vaccination  - stop chest infection ( pneumoccocal pneaumonia )

5 Healthy weight = better glucose control + lower BP  + better insulin use 

6 Smoking = ^ CVD & cancer + insulin resistance + damage artery wall 

  • CV problem +  ^ LDL  + Low HDL + ^ BP ( ADRENALINE ) + ^ glucose ( insulin resistance ) + eye damage ( diabetic retropathy )
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