AS VITAMINS 2019- CCEA

Explaining sources, excess, deficiency and functions of all fat and water soluble vitamins needed for AS1 exam.

  • Created by: sarahj123
  • Created on: 10-04-19 00:49

What are vitamins?

  • Complex organic compounds
  • Needed in small amounts
  • Not synthesized in body
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Amount required depends on :

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Activity
  • Health

* REMEMBER: Some people have higher energy requirements- for instance, smokers or pregnant women *

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Fat vs Water soluble

Fat Soluble - A + D +E + K ( I REMEMBER THIS BY THINKING "IDEK" )

  • Dissolve in fat & oil
  • Dont dissolve in water
  • A + D = stored in LIVER
  • Excess can cause - HYPERVITAMINOSIS
  • Measure = MICROGRAMS

Water Soluble - C + B GROUP 

  • Dissolve in water
  • Dont dissolve in fat
  • Not stored in body = EXCRETED in urine
  • Meause = MILLIGRAMS
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Fat Soluble - Vitamin A

  • RETINOL
  • BETA - CAROTENE

Source

Retinol : Milk & Cheese & Butter ( DAIRY PRODUCTS )

Carotene : Carrot & Melon & Mango ( ORANGE FRUIT )

Function

  • Growth 
  • Antioxidant
  • Healthy skin
  • Rhodopsin production = vision in dim light
  • Prevent infection = keeps cornea and digestion tract moist
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Vitamin A

Excess

  • Toxicity
  • Birth defects
  • Hypervitaminosis - skin & bone disorder 

Deficiency

  • Retarded growth
  • Night blindness ( lack rhodopsin )
  • Unhealthy skin
  • Low immunity
  • XEROPHTHALMIA  (Tearglands block and scar cornea)
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Fat Soluble - Vitamin D

  • CALCIFEROL

Source

Butter + Cheese + Oily fish ( ANIMAL PRODUCTS )

* Sunlight = 7 - dehydrocholesterol 

Function

  • Grow & maintain bone + teeth
  • Absorb calcium & phosphorus
  • Cell growth
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Vitamin D

Excess

  • Calcium deposited in soft tissue
  • Hypervitaminosis
  • Kidney stones

Deficiency

  • Rickets (children) = bones bend
  • Osteomalacia (adults) = soft & brittle bones (demineralised)
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Fat Soluble - Vitamin K

  • PHYLLOQUINONE

Source

Egg + Milk + Cheese

Functions

  • Regulate blood clots ( prothrombin = coagulation cascade )
  • Cell growth
  • Bone mineralization
  • Gla- proteins = OSTEOCALCIN (normal calcium binding )
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Vitamin K

Excess

  • NONE

Deficiency

  • Haemorrhagic disease = abnormal bleeding in new born (no clot )
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Fat Soluble - Vitamin E

  • TOCOPHEROL

Source

Nuts + Pulses + Veg oil

Function

  • Prevent retrolental fibroplasia (eye disease)
  • Protect DNA 
  • Antioxidant (reduce rancidity + protect lipids + lower risk of cell leaking + reduce inflammatory disease eg. rheumatoid arthritis )
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Vitamin E

Excess

  • NONE

Deficiency

  • Nerve system problem ( fragile RBC )
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Water Soluble - Vitamin B3

NIACIN

Source

Liver + Egg + Milk

* Made in body from Trytophan

Function

  • Energy
  • Glucose oxidation
  • Tolerance factor ( insulin action )
  • Healthy skin & hair & nails
  • Nervous system
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Vitamin B3

EXCESS

NONE

DEFICIENCY

  • Pellagra - 4 d's 
  • Dermatitis
  • Dimentia
  • Diarrhoea
  • Weight loss
  • Depression
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Water Soluble - Vitamin B1

Thiamin

Source

Liver + egg + nuts 

Function

  • Energy
  • enzyme
  • immune system
  • health
  • nervous system
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Vitamin B1

EXCESS

NONE

DEFICIENCY

  • Retarded growth
  • Depression
  • Dry beri-beri = fatigue & mood change
  • Wet beri-beri = brain damage & psychosis
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Water Soluble - Vitamin B2

RIBOFLAVIN

Source

Liver + egg + milk

Function

  • energy
  • enzyme
  • tissue uptake ( eyes & skin )
  • health
  • RBC production
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Vitamin B2

EXCESS

NONE

DEFICIENCY

  • Oily dermatitis
  • swollen tongue
  • cracked lips
  • bloodshot eyes
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Water Soluble - Vitamin B6

PYRIDOXINE

Source

Liver + egg + cereal

Function

  • Protein synthesis
  • RBC
  • Body metabolism
  • AA metabolism
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Vitamin B6

EXCESS

  • Sensory nerve function

DEFICIENCY

  • Skin disorder
  • Anaemia
  • Nausea
  • Stones
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Water Soluble - Vitamin B12

COBALAMIN

Source

Meat + egg + milk

Function

  • + FOLATE = cell division ( form blood cells )
  • Nerve system
  • Brain development
  • Build DNA
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Vitamin B12

EXCESS

NONE

DEFICENCY

  • Pernicious anaemia ( Large RBC - neurological damage )
  • Nervous system damage
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Water Soluble - Folate

FOLIC ACID

SOURCE

Orange + leafy green + cereal

FUNCTION

  • Cell growth
  • RBC 
  • Nervous system & nerve sheaths  ( develop neural tube )

PREGNANT = 400mg

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FOLATE

EXCESS

NONE

DEFICIENCY

  • Megoblastic Anaemia ( large & less blood cells)
  • Neural tube defects ( Spina bifida )
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Water Soluble - Vitamin C

ABSORBIC ACID

SOURCE

Citrus fruit + Berry + Leafy greens

FUNCTION

  • Collagen ( bind cells )
  • Wound healing
  • Convert non-haem to haem
  • Antioxidant
  • Immunity
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Vitamin C

EXCESS

  • Kidney stones

DEFICIENCY

  • Delay healing
  • Anaemia
  • Scurvy ( black gum + teeth fall out )
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BIOAVAILABILITY

  • How easily absorbed & used

Influenced by:

  • needs
  • useability
  • other components
  • chemical form

VITAMIN: absorbed in intestine (well & available)

Vitamin A : Alcohol & disease limit absorption

Vitamin C : Stress & smoking limit absorpton

Vitamin B12 : Alcohol & Vitamin B6

Folate : Non-steroid anti-inflamatory drugs (eg. aspirin)

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