developmental psychology revision

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what is meant by the oedipus complex?

having sexual desires for mother and fearing castration from father & wanting father dead

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highlight and explain 2 pieces of evidence that indicates hans was going through the oedipus complex...

hans was pre occupied with his widdler-penis, this showed he was aware of sexuality, which supported freud's theory

he had a dream of a smaller crumples giraffe was taken away from the taller one -he wanted his father out of the way so he could be with his mother

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outline one weaknesswith the waythe data was collected?

lack of objective, analysis was conducted second hand via the father and words were put into little han's mouth

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what is action research?

when you're researching and curing at the same time

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how did psychoanalysis enable hans to overcome his fantasies?

as they were identified and brought out into the open which they were then inferred, confronted and resolved

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what is regression?

taking your anger out by acting like a child would when they're upset e.g. stamping your feet when not allowed to go to a party

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what is repression?

pushing bad thoughts to the back of your mind

what is projection/displacement?

transferring thoughts onto someone else or something e.g. banging the walls

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in which stage of psychsexual development does the oedipus complex occur?

phallic stage 3-5year olds

focus on the genetials, inner conflict of sexual feelings , superego begins to develop with recognition of Father's moral standards

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outline 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the case study method...

strengths- interviews of single people yeild a large amount of data, theraputic use, focusing on just one research subject is more efficient than focusing on a large number

weaknesses- can't generalise from one person to the whole human race e.g ( lil hans may not be typical of all children), can be extremely time consuming

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what is the social learning theory?

children learn through observation and imitate this behaviour

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what are the aims of this study?


children shown aggressive models will show significantly more imitative aggressive behaviour than those shown non-aggressive or no models

children shown non-aggressive, subdued models will show significantly less aggressive behaviour than those aggressive or no models

boys should show significantly more imitative aggression than girls, especially with the male rather than the female aggressive model

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this is a matched pairs design- explain how p's were matched...

children were given an aggression score of 1-5 based on their teacher ratings

and the same number of 1's went in the agressive group

same nuber of 5's went in the aggressive & non- aggressive group

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what are the IVs in this study?

behaviour of the model, sex of the subject, male/female model

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what was being measured and how?

behaviour of children was being measured by observing them with the IVs

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what was the purpose of the mild arousal (nice toys)?

this was necessary to provoke the children

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outline 2 findings of this study...

the children in the aggressive condition imitated many of the role models physical and verbal behaviour

children in the non-aggressive model condition, showed very little aggression , although not significantly less than the no model group.

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example of non-imitative aggression...

gun play

example of imitative verbal and physical aggression...

physical- mallet on the head

verbal- sock him in the nose

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if children do learn through social learning then what are the implications for society?

don't expose media violence to children

if parents/guardians don't swear or argue in front of children

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what are the findings of this study in relation to the nature nurture debate?

aggression is nurture, it's all down to society according to bandura, as all participants imitated the role model

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the findings of the study are deterministic-explain why?

as the aggressive behaviour and actions were imitated from observing

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samuel and bryant

what is meant by conservation?

realising that some properties such as volume and mass remain the same despite the change in appearance

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samuel and bryant

why did samuel and bryant think that Piaget's procedure was wrong?

they argued that piaget made a methodological error by imposing the demand characteristics as

he asked the same question twice whenhe had changed something,

children assumed they had to give a different answer

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samuel and bryant

in which stage did Piaget think children couldn't conserve?

in the pre-operational stage

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samuel and bryant

outline the p's in the study...

252 boys and girls divided into four age groups (5,6,7,8 year olds

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explain the findings in terms of the substance used (liquid volume, mass,number) ...

volume was the hardest substance to work out

number was the easiest to succeed

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samuel and bryant

explain the findings in terms of the question (1Qu, 2Qu and fixed array)

children were significantly more able to conserve in the one judgement task (1Qu) supports criticism of piaget's study

fixed array resulted in most errors

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samuel and bryant

what are 2 factors that lead to improved conservation ability?

post-transformation quest(1 judgment way)

2 different versions of each type of conservation test were given to ensure the child could show a proper understanding of the concepts involved

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samuel and bryant

outline 4 problems when studying children?

cuts down the range of data collection methods available because of lack of communication and language skills

special care is required with regard to ethics

informed consent

prone to demand characteristics

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samuel and bryant

what was the Iv in this exp?

1. questions- standard condition, 1 judgement condition, fixed array judgement

2. age- 5,6,7,8

3. materials- mass, volume, number

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samuel and bryant

what was the DV in this exp?

correct or incorrect answer

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samuel and bryant

how was the DV measured?

in each group every child was tested 4 times for conservation of number, mass and volume

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samuel and bryant

how do samuel and bryant's findings relate to everyday life?

make society aware that somepsychologists methods can be worng- proven in paiget's study

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hodges and tizard

what is the aim of this study?

to investigate whether experiencing early institutionalisation with ever-changing care-giver until atleast 2 years of age

will lead to long term problems in adolescence for adopted and restored children

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hodges and tizard

what is subject attrition?

people not willing to be committed for so long and drop out

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hodges and tizard

why is subject attrition a problem in longitudinal studies?

as it's over a long period of time and p's may decide to drop out for certain reasons such as they're moving away, they may die etc

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hodges and tizard

outline 3 other problems of longitudal studies...

time consuming & exspensive

low reliability- virtually impossible to replicate long studies

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hodges and tizard

what are 2 strengths of longitudal studies?

less bias from participant variables as they are studies for a long period of time

shows changes over time

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hodges and tizard

how were p's matched to the control group in this study?

control group1-matched for age, sex, position in the family, 1/2 parent family

control group2- formed for the school relationship from the classmates nearest in age of the same sex

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hodges and tizard

what 2 methods were used to collect data for this study?

interviews and questionnaires

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hodges and tizard

explain the findings in relation to home life for the adopted and restored groups...

adopted group were really attatched to parents and families as they felt they were wanted and loved

restored group were resentful and less attatched as they had been institutionalised while their siblings hadn't been, felt unwanted and rejected

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hodges and tizard

explain the findings in terms of school life for the adopted and restored...

both groups were less likely to have a special friend and socialize well with other peers , more argumentative, as they had lack of trust, resented children who were not institutionalised

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hodges and tizard

how can this study be applied to every day life?

if true we can help ex-institutionalised children develop inter personal relationships

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hodges and tizard

why may EV be an issue for this study?

low Ev in the sense of a one to one interview, demand characteristics

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hodges and tizard

why may ethics be an issue for this study?

protection- leading questions, distorting everyday life

right to withdraw p's felt obliged to conform

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