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Slide 1

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Developmental psychology Individual differences psychology
1. Assumption 1. Assumption
2. 4 key terms (four mark question) 2. 4 key terms (four mark question)
3. Similarity and difference 3. Similarity and difference
4. Strengths and weaknesses 4. Strengths and weaknesses
Social psychology Physiological psychology
1. Assumption 1. Assumption
2. 4 key terms (four mark question) 2. 4 key terms (four mark question)
3. Similarity and difference 3. Similarity and difference
4. Strengths and weaknesses 4. Strengths and weaknesses…read more

Slide 2

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Individual differences psychology Developmental psychology
· That to understand the complexity of human behaviour and · The experience in childhood can affect later behaviour ­ bandura
experiences it is necessary to study the differences between people role models influence aggression in later life
rather than those things that we all have in common.
Aggression Conservation Phobia
Mental illness MPD Gambling nurture cognitive development Id and Ego
· reliably · Results differences · cognitive biases imitation pre-operational stage defence mechanisms
· Type 2 error · personalities · verbalisation social learning theory post-transformation phobia
· social phenomenon · Repressive · Skill base same sex effect demand characteristics nurture
· pseudo patients' · Thigpen & Cleckley · 14% irrational
Similarity: sample size: Rosenhan,8 Thigpen and Cleckley, 1 (with 3 Similarity: Bandura (72) and Samuel and Bryant (252) , both had large
different personalities). Difference: Griffiths was field experiment. samples. Difference: Freud was a case study, Bandura was an lab
while Thigpen and Cleckley was a case study. experiment.
Strengths: Provides a better understanding about mental illness which Strengths: childhood is a critical period in our development.(Bandura)
can lead to treatments. (Griffiths addiction); Can reduce prejudice and Shows how ageing and maturation can affect out behaviour. (Samuel
discrimination against people who have a mental illness. (Rosenhan) and Bryant)
Weaknesses; often qualitative and can be very subjective making it Weaknesses: Samples often children creates ethical issues (Bandura)
researcher bias. (Thigpen and Cleckley); Raises many ethical issues Samples can often be too small to generalise to the rest of the
(Rosenhan) population (Freud)
Physiological psychology Social psychology
· Our biology, especially neurobiology, affects our behaviour as human · Our behaviour is determined by the social environment and the roles
behaviour have a physiological cause which may be environmentally we have in different situations. This influences us even when we are
altered. alone and affects how we relate to others around us.
split-brain patients Dreaming Navigation Obedience Tyranny Helping behaviour
· split-brain · REM and NREM · grey matter · authority figure · social identity theory · bystander
· corpus callosum · eye movement · hippocampus · Situational hypothesis · Boundaries = · cost-reward model
· hemisphere · Brain activity · posterior · prestigious setting impermeable · arousal
· RVF and LFV · Dream content · spatial navigation · 60% went to 450V · United · Gender
· Opposed power
Similarity: Small Samples in; Sperry (11) and Dement and Kleitman (9)
Differences: Maguire has ecologically natural IV, Dement and Kleitman Similarity: Ethical problems. Milgram, mainly deception. Also, Piliavin,
is low in ecological validity as sleeping in the lab with electrodes debrief and deception. Differences: Piliavin was a field experiment while
attached Reicher and Haslam was a laboratory experiment.
Strengths: scientific methods MRI &EEG (Maguire); Provides support Strengths: Studies factors that are relevant to our society (Reicher and
for the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate (Maguire) Haslam); Demonstrates the way situational factors affect our behaviour
Weaknesses: Can lack eco validity due to scientific measures (Sperry); (Milgram) Weaknesses: ethical issues due to deceit (Piliavin)
Hard to show cause and effect (Maguire showed only a correlational Assumes that all people will respond to their social situation in the same
relationship between variables) way. Ignores any free will the person has to over ride it (Milgram)…read more

Slide 3

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Cognitive psychology Behaviourist perspective
1. Assumption 1. Assumption
2. 4 key terms (four mark question) 2. 4 key terms (four mark question)
3. Similarity and difference 3. Similarity and difference
4. Strengths and weaknesses 4. Strengths and weaknesses
1. Assumption
2. 4 key terms (four mark question)
3. Similarity and difference
4. Strengths and weaknesses…read more

Slide 4

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Behaviourist perspective Cognitive psychology
· Our behaviour is learnt mainly through interaction with the · Behaviour is determined by internal mental processes, such as
environment after we are born. Reinforcement of behaviour is memory, language, perception and thoughts and this influences
important in the way we behave. how we behave.
Eyewitness testimony Autism Language accusation
Aggression Language accusation Obedience
Altar memory Theory of mind Spontaneous
Deterministic operant techniques of Punishment
Leading question Impaired Lexigram
Nature reinforcement Operant conditioning
subjective perception Control task Comprehend english
Gambling behavior Helping behaviour
individual differences Operant condition Similarity: Loftus & Palmer and Baron-Cohen are lab experiments
classical reinforcement Positive reward Difference: Loftus and Palmer control the IV , while Savage-Rumbagh,
Similarity: key operant conditioning; `punishment and positive reward'. uses quasi as it was a naturally occurring IV
Milgram = the prods, Piliavin = positive reward (cost) Difference: is that Strengths: used scientific methods such as laboratory experiments
Griffiths uses classical conditioning (winning sound) whereas Milgram which have high control and allow for reliability (Loftus and Palmer);
uses punishment Practical applications in the form of treatments and therapy (Baron-
Strengths: Practical applications; can be used in real life to help people Cohen) Weaknesses: May lack eco. validity due to the scientific
(Bandura); Scientific nature (Savage-Rumbaugh) methods (Loftus and Palmer); mainly quantitative data does not give
Weaknesses: Low eco validity (Bandura); Reductionist (Bandura) reasons for results (Savage-Rumbaugh)
· Our behaviour is influences by drives and conflicts in our
unconscious mind which we have no awareness of.
Oedipus complex MPD
Id and Ego personalities
defence mechanisms nature
Similarity: both Freud and Thigpen and Cleckley are useful to explain
personality development
Difference: Freud study was about the development of the Oedipus
complex in a child whereas T&C focus on MPD
Strengths: Shows that childhood influence later life (Thigpen and
Cleckley); often qualitative so provides rich in depth data (Freud)
Weaknesses: often qualitative it is very subjective and open to
researcher bias (Freud); Often uses small ungeneralisable samples
(Freud and little Hans)…read more


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