A period of high birth and death rate. Both of which fluctuate. Population growth is small.
Reasons for high birth rate include:
- children are a future source of income
- limited birth control / family planning
- high infant mortality rate which encourages the birth of children
Reasons for high death rate include:
- high incidence of disease
- poor nutrition and famine
- poor levels of hygiene
Stage 2 - Early Expanding
Period of high birth rate but fallling death rate. Population begins to expand rapidly.
Reasons for falling death rate include:
- Improved public health and medical care
- better nutrition, veg + fruit availible.
- improved medical provision; hospitals, nurses, antibiotics.
Stage 3 - Late expanding
Period of falling birth rate and continued fall in death rate. Population growth slows down.
Reasons for falling birth rate include:
- preferances for smaller families
- compulsary schooling making the raising of children more expensive
- lower infant mortality rate
- changing socioeconomic conditions
Stage 4 - Low fluctuating
Period of low birth and death rate both of which fluctuate.
- Population growth is small
- More women in the work force
- Many people having high incomes
- More leisure interests
Stage 5 - Decline
A later period, death rate slightly exceeds birth rate. Causing population decline. This stage has only been recognised in recent years.
Reasons for low birth rate include :
- Greater financial independance of women
- A rise in the concept of children
- Aging population ( baby boomers dying)
- concern about the impact of an increased populatoin on the resources for future generations
- Same sex relationships.