Decline in Caesar and Pompey's relationship

Notes on Pompey and Caesar's decline in relationship

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Major events

- Death of Julia- 54BC- strong link broken.

-Pompey moved closer towards the optimates by marrying daughter of a leading optimates- scipio nasica.

-Death of Crassus at Carrhae-53BC- now power struggle between Pompey and Caesar.

-Fewer common objectives- Caesar in Gaul, Pompey in Rome: two now set up as opponents rather than allies.

-Caesar built up support through conquests in Gaul and frequent altrusitic donations to Rome:

  • Huges succeses
  • Captured Gallic towns and had concilitary policy with them
  • New provinces set up
  • Shown military genius and leniency
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Decline in relationship

- Pompey acting as the 'protector' of Rome in face of growing anarchy- all candidate of elections 53BC facing prosecution for corruption.

-Anarchy in Rome- Clodius and Milo (Clodius murdered by Milo, body taken to Senate house to cremate which blazed out of control and burned down senate house.

-Lepidus- interrex in absence of consuls- terrorised.

-Senate recognised Pompey as a good option to call upon in event of situation:

  • SCU passed- Pomepy given authority to raise troops, restore order.
  • Series of failed attempts to hold elections- call for Pompey as sole consul
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Pompey's sole consulship

-Exceptional circumstances- transgressing the law that there must be a 10 year gap between consulships.

-Extraoridinary circumstances reinforced by conservatives suggesting Pompey's consulship was an unconstiutional office.

-Pompey's 3 measures:

  • Law against public violence
  • 5 year interval between urban magistracies and provincial commands
  • Candidates must appear in person for elections

-First aimed at regaining control post Milo/Clodius- Milo tried and exiled despite Cicero's defence.

-Latter 2 laws caused huge effect on Caesar who hoped to extend his provincial command unti 49BC- no protection from prosecution of changing provinces and he couldn't stand in absentia.

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Pompey's sole consulship

-A breakdown in communication and trust between Pompey and Caesar.

-Caesar pointed out all 10 tribunes had already constented to him standing in absentia- Pompey then quickly backed down and made him an exception.

-Pompey struck a position between Caesar and the optimates.

-Caesar aware of his reliance on Pompey.

Aims in 52BC

  • Pompey- keep balance of position between Caesar and Optimates whilst retaining supremacy.
  • Caesar- protection against prosecution, consulship of 48BC and province in 47BC.
  • Optimates- prosecution of Caesar (thus his recall from Gaul)
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