- Death of Julia- 54BC- strong link broken.
-Pompey moved closer towards the optimates by marrying daughter of a leading optimates- scipio nasica.
-Death of Crassus at Carrhae-53BC- now power struggle between Pompey and Caesar.
-Fewer common objectives- Caesar in Gaul, Pompey in Rome: two now set up as opponents rather than allies.
-Caesar built up support through conquests in Gaul and frequent altrusitic donations to Rome:
- Huges succeses
- Captured Gallic towns and had concilitary policy with them
- New provinces set up
- Shown military genius and leniency
Decline in relationship
- Pompey acting as the 'protector' of Rome in face of growing anarchy- all candidate of elections 53BC facing prosecution for corruption.
-Anarchy in Rome- Clodius and Milo (Clodius murdered by Milo, body taken to Senate house to cremate which blazed out of control and burned down senate house.
-Lepidus- interrex in absence of consuls- terrorised.
-Senate recognised Pompey as a good option to call upon in event of situation:
- SCU passed- Pomepy given authority to raise troops, restore order.
- Series of failed attempts to hold elections- call for Pompey as sole consul
Pompey's sole consulship
-Exceptional circumstances- transgressing the law that there must be a 10 year gap between consulships.
-Extraoridinary circumstances reinforced by conservatives suggesting Pompey's consulship was an unconstiutional office.
-Pompey's 3 measures:
- Law against public violence
- 5 year interval between urban magistracies and provincial commands
- Candidates must appear in person for elections
-First aimed at regaining control post Milo/Clodius- Milo tried and exiled despite Cicero's defence.
-Latter 2 laws caused huge effect on Caesar who hoped to extend his provincial command unti 49BC- no protection from prosecution of changing provinces and he couldn't stand in absentia.
Pompey's sole consulship
-A breakdown in communication and trust between Pompey and Caesar.
-Caesar pointed out all 10 tribunes had already constented to him standing in absentia- Pompey then quickly backed down and made him an exception.
-Pompey struck a position between Caesar and the optimates.
-Caesar aware of his reliance on Pompey.
Aims in 52BC
- Pompey- keep balance of position between Caesar and Optimates whilst retaining supremacy.
- Caesar- protection against prosecution, consulship of 48BC and province in 47BC.
- Optimates- prosecution of Caesar (thus his recall from Gaul)