Motives for Caesar crossing Rubicon
1. Revenge for 'chasing' tribunes out of Rome.
2. Cicero: tribunes were never in dangeer- Caesar staged this to provide an excuse.
3. Sacrosanctity of tribunes not really issue for Caesar.
4. Insufficient funds to carry out Caesar's grandiose schemes:
- had sent booty back to Rome
- Paying off Curio's debts
- 250 drachmas to each of Pompey's soldiers of borrowed legion
- Broke into treasury on taking Rome 49BC
5. Indignity of prospect of prosecution
6. No indication that Caesar conciously aimed for civil war- last resort- defence of his honour.
Who was responsible?
- Led troops across Rubicon
- Commited treason
- Perhaps hoping for a quick political coup resulting of consulship in 48BC
- Main aim ostensibly preventing Caesar becoming his equal
- Didn't want civil war
- Refused to accept Curio's compromises
- Attempting by refusal to force a peaceful back-down from Caesar whilst maintaining supremacy.
- Mainly eager to prevent conflict
- Small group of lonng-term enemies of Caesar not willing to compromise
- Wanted descruction of Caesar
Stages of the Civil War- Caesar crosses Rubicon
- Pompey and Optimates unprepared.
- Ahenobarbus fails to intercept Caesar- surrendered with 3 legions- evacuation of Pompey and Allies from Italy.
- Pompey leaves for Greece with majority of senators.
- Caesar attempting to make personal contact with Pompey and Pompey refuses.
- Caesar didn't follow to Greece immediately- raided treasury
- Cicero didn't accompany Pompey- very distressed, urged to join Caesar but felt obliged to continue support for Pompey.
- Declined direct appeal to join Caesar at Rome
- Sailed to Greece late to join Pompey after three months.
Stages of Civil war- Greece
- Caesar took decision to secure Spain before following Pompey to Greece- avoid 2-fronted war.
- Drove out Pompey's commanders (Afranius and Varro).
- Took control of grain supplies of Sardinia and Sicily.
- 48BC- elected consul and set out after Pompey.
- Initially attempted a blockade from Dyrrhachium then moved inland to Thessaly and Pompey followed stealthily.
- Pharsalus- 48BC
- Pompey flees to Egypt where he was murded when he got there.
Stages of Civil War- Egypt and Asia
- Caesar involved in 2 campaigns: had followed Pompey to Egypt to prevent him building new troops and renewing the war.
- Was swept up in dynastic problems of Ptolemy and Cleopatra and help Cleopatra gain control of Egypt.
- Summer 47BC- returned to Rome via Syria and Asia Minor- reorganised provincial administration, dealt with unruly Pharnaces.
- Returned to Rome in time to settle a mutiny of veterans following Pharsalus.
Stages of Civil War- Africa
- End 47BC- Africa to crush remainder of Pompey's supporters.
- Scipio Metellus, Afranius, Labienus, Cato and Pompey's two sons leading resistance, supported by King Juba of Numidia.
- Two forces met at Thapsus- Caesar's troops out of hand- high blood shed.
- All bar Pompey's sons and Labienus dead (Cato=suicide)
- 4 triumphs in one month on return to Rome.
- Only brief spells spent in Rome, but enough for Caesar to enact reforms, building programmes, be appointed dictator at certain points and accept honours.
Stages of Civil War- Spain
- Pompey's sons and Labienus in Spain.
- Culminated in 45BC with battle of Munda- only Sextus Pompey of the Pompeian forces escaped alive.
- Caesar's last war.
- Took the title Parens Patriae
Stage of Civil War- General
- Proved himself, through fighting through over the majority of the Mediterranean, that he was the most successful general.
- Returned to Rome to great acclaim and honours.
Meanwhile, following Pompey's death, Cicero reconcils with Caesar, but withdraws from public life spending most of his time writing.