Decentralisation of Retailing

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  • Trafford Centre - Manchester
  • Merry Hill - Dudley, Birmingham
  • Fosse Park - Leicester
  • Metrocentre - Gateshead
  • Blue Water - Kent, London
  • White Rose - Leeds
  • Brent Cross - North London
  • Cribbs Causeway - Bristol
  • Meadowhall - Sheffield
  • Lakeside - Essex, London
  • Braehead - Glasgow
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Pre 1970s

Shops selling high-order goods were:

  • located in town and city centre
  • attracted customers from a wide area

Shops selling low-order goods were:

  • located in residential areas
  • served customers in their neighbourhood

Shoppers tended to bewomen sho shopped locally a few times a week

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Changes to Retailing Patterns

1970s:- supermarkets sold food and non food times which  allowed the weekly shop. Car popularity allowed free movement further afield

1980s:- Non retail parks expanded - easy access to main roads on the outskirts of town -> uniform, warehouse type buildings

1990s:- huge out of town shopping centres were built on the periphery, close to major motorways (often with their own junction)

21st Century:- ecommerce booming online. Supermarkets began online shopping/delivery services. People still like to examine goods before purchase. Etailers rely on road/railway for shipping so can not guarantee next day delivery. Farmers markets grow - people are willing to pay more than supermarkets prices for healthier food with fewer food miles

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Changes in Retailing

Push Factors:

  • congestion in CBD
  • High parking costs for shoppers
  • high rents and running costs for shops 
  • high cost developing sites 
  • lack of space for expansion

Pull Factors:

  • Cheap avaliable land 
  • fewer building restriction
  • larger sites avaliable for car parks
  • avaliable workforce in suburbs
  • easier access (delivery)
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Characteristics of Retail Parks

  • not under one roof
  • sometimes linked to supermarket
  • number of large purpose built 'box shaped' retail outlets
  • sell specialised goods - DIY, furniture, white goods, computers, sports goods
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Edge/out of town Retail Centres

  • under one roof with adjacent outlets
  • based around one anchor store
  • sell convenience and comparison goods
  • range off chain stores (a few independent)
  • accessible by public transport
  • open into late evening
  • some food and drink outlets
  • larger catchment
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Regional Out of town Retail centres

  • Under one roof-based around a number of anchor stores
  • sell a range of convenience and comparison goods
  • wide range of chain stores
  • large amount of free parking
  • accessible by public transport 
  • open into evening
  • leisure on-site activities
  • variety of places to eat and drink
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