Culture and identity booklet 1

  • Created by: AnnabellP
  • Created on: 19-12-17 08:56

What is sociology?

  • Systematic study of human groups and social lives
  • Study of social institutions
  • Social institutions: - family: relationships - education: passing on attitudes, knowledge and skills - work/economy: production of goods - religion: relations with supernatural - law: controlling and regulating behaviour
  • Relations and links
  • Describing/explaining patterns of inequality, deprivation and conflict
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Sociology and common sense

  • Challenging everyday explanation/understandings
  • Find hidden motives, causes and consequences
  • Not all undermine common sense
  • Sociological imagination: - different angles - re-examine existing assumptions
  • Evidence on issues: precise, research procedures
  • Objectivity: - value freedom - open mind - keep personal beliefs out of research process
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Becoming human: sociology and naturalistic explana

  • Naturalistic: innate biological characteristics, instincts
  • Now: genes, gender differences
  • Human behaviour: too complex and diverse
  • Maybe result of other factors other than biology and genes
  • Culture teaches us how to think and act
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Meanings and Values

  • Meanings: Hall 1997 [cultural: language, symbols, express emotions and thoughts][shared: social groups build up shared understandings][new meanings: contant new meanings and revising old ones, process]
  • Values: important, principles, standards, honesty, consideration, justice, fairness
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Norms and socialisation

  • Norms: social expectations, behaviour, rules, different rules for different situations, vary in degree of seriousness
  • socialisation: lifelong process, learn culture of society, agencies = family, media, education and religion
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Values activity

  • Value = good and worthwhile, vary in societies
  • Cheyenne Indians: USA, defeated by US Army, wealth in form of horses and weapons, generosity highly regarded, greatest gift = prestige and respect, goals and aims, general guidelines, shared values = social unity = social solidarity, sense of belonging
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Norms acitivity

  • Norms: specific guidelines, all areas of social life i.e. dress, behaviour in different situations
  • Culture norms: learned and shared an vary i.e. food
  • Bedouin: eat with fingers and burp -> west don't
  • Norms provide order in society, predictable, comprehensible
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Culture activity

  • Culture = way of life of a particulr society
  • Beliefs, values, attitudes, norms, customs, traditions and rituals
  • Ralph Linton: "The culture of a society is the way of life for its members: the collection of ideas and habits which they learn, share and transmit through generations"
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Culture test

  • Feral children: fully human = accepted into society, culture = develop human potential, prolonged isolation from human company, encouter problems
  • Monkey boy: Uganda, abandoned at 2 yrs old and looked after by monkeys, learned monkey language and skills, taken to orphanage, now human-like
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  • Socialisation -> form identities
  • Identity -> definition of selves
  • Individual identities: socialisation, family, friends, school, media, work and other agencies
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Socialisation task

  • Socialisation: lifelong process, learn culture
  • Culture: language, beliefs, values, norms, customs, roles, knowledge, skills
  • Identity: definition of selves, family, friends etc
  • Individuals: free will, create own personal identities, influence others views
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Primary socialisation

  • PS: family, learn through imitation -> early years -> parents, family and siblings, consequences and awards, guidelines, behaviour in situations, interaction and communication, feral children = less chance
  • Baumeister 1986: family = identity
  • Morgan 1996: socialisation = social control and encourage conformity
  • Sanctions: right and wrong
  • Culture expectations: femininity and masculinit, TGI
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Primary socialisation and identity

  • Identity: understandings about selves and what is meaningful to them
  • Social identity: charactersitics, indicate who we are
  • Baumeister 1986: family socialisation = identity
  • Young children: no live except family role
  • Social roles: played by parents
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Secondary socialisation

  • **: other agencies other than the family
  • Education: behaviour, punishments, rewards
  • Meida: up to date with world
  • Religion: beliefs, good, bad
  • Work: organised, timing
  • Peers: how they behave
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  • Linton 1945: culture of society = way of life, collection of ideas and habits, transmit through generations, languages, beliefs, values, norms, customs, dress, diet, roles, knowledge, skills
  • Culture: essential, communication, order, not ruled by instinct, governed by our genes or directed by biological needs and impulses
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Culture activity

  • Shirbit culture: human body = ugly, rituals, ceremonies, shrine devoted to body, adults don't duscuss rituals, children told enough to be successfully initiated, potions kept in charm box, rituals of the mouth stop teeth falling out
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Customs, roles and role conflict

  • Customs: norms lasted long time, traditions
  • Roles: parts we play in society, culture = guidelines on how to pla roles, varies in societies
  • Role conflict: many roles at same time, succesful performance of 2+ conflict
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  • Subcultre: social group, follow norms and values of majority, also have own norms and values
  • Larger and complex societies: people select particular norms, values and lifestyles
  • Own subcultures
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Culture diversity - differences

  • Ethnocentrism: own cultre = normal, other cultures = different
  • Comparisons: wide differences
  • Process of socialisation = different for girls and boys
  • The social body: Elias 1978, changing cultural attitudes, [16th century -> no sense of shame/delicacy eat with hands, belch, fart, scratch, toilet in public], [now -> more sensitive, disciplined]
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Becoming human - a conclusion

  • Long-running debate = nature/nurture
  • Feral children
  • Human behaviour = diverse
  • Elias -> body habits = product of socialisation
  • Explain social behaviour -> answers found at the social and cultural level
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Roles and status activity

  • Status -> ascribed/achieved
  • Ascribed: fixed/unchangeable, many fixed at birth -> gender, UK -> aristocratic titles -> royal family
  • Achieved: choice/positive action
  • Social status: accompanied by role, nroms, differ over time, in realtion to other roles
  • Roles: order/predictability
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Social control

  • Social control: persuade individuals, conform to dominant social norms and values, prevent deviance
  • Deviance  -> failure to conform to social norms
  • Sanctions: rewards, punishments, positive or negative, type depends on seriousness
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Pimary socialisation and social control

  • Morgan 1996: socialisation -> social contro land encouraging conformity
  • Primary socialistion: praise, punishment
  • Treats: physical/emotional, sanctions vary on seriousness, teach rights and wrongs
  • Sanctions: shape moral beings
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  • Animals: controlled by fixed biological instincts
  • Human behaviour: too complex, too diverse to be explained by biologically-based instincts, needs or drives, learnt through socialisation and culture
  • Culture: varies in societies, meanings, values, norms, roles, guide behaviour
  • Sociologists: avoid making judgements about cultures
  • Societies: larger and complex -> subcultures
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