1. SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION
CLARKE= reducing opportunities for crime. This makes life hard for prospective criminals. uses direct prevention techniques e.g. more lighting in dark areas and cameras. This increases the effort needed for crime to be commited. "Rational Choice Theory" from Right Realism. THE ROCHDALE STUDY- The Home Office Crime Prevention Unit 1988= 85% of criminals burgle homes 5 miles from their house. 77% walk to the targets house and 25% knew the target personally. MOst forced a window or door open. More than half would be put off by visible alarms. 1/3 of burglaries are done during work hours. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE LEFT REALIST APPROACH?= Clarke believes they take too long and cost too much. The problem is better stopped immediately. We can re- design environments to make crime seem like its less frequent in specific areas. FELSON- physically re- designing New York City Bus Stop to "design crime out". A success to the immediate environment: fewer homeless people, less theft, fewer drug deals. However this type of situational crime prevention leads to the problem of displacement. CHAIKEN- a crackdown on robberies in New York Subways led to the crime going upstairs to the streets. EVAL OF SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES- it focusses on opportunistic street crime. Do criminals make rational choices? There are no long term strategies to improve the lives of those likely to turn to crime
2. ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME PREVENTION
Wilson- Broken Window Thesis= there are other aspects that symbolise a broken down society. e.g. lack of control in neighbourhoods. SOLUTIONS- Environmental improvement policing. Extra officers are therefore bound to eradicate more crime. Officers have actually had the same amounts of crime but dont record them all. There was higher employment rates at this time and less crime everywhere. A fall in homocides mainly because of improved medical treatment.
3. SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION
look at the social context of the offender e.g. lifestyle, housing, education and the use of leisure facilities. Need to tackle to root causes e.g. poverty, unemployment, poor housing.
The Perry Pre- School Project and Crime Prevention
Weikart 1960's, in Michigan USA. This project provided high-quality pre- school education to 3/4 year old African/ American Children who were failing educationally and were living in poverty. 123 children were involved and were put randomly into 2 groups. 58 were out onto the High/ Scope educational programme from 1962- 67, 65 similar children were put into a control group. The pre- school activity was provided each weekday morning into 2.5 hour sessions. the average teacher- pupil ratio was 6:1. The curriculum emphasised active learning in which children were encouraged to participate in active problem solving and to do activities that they themselves created. The teachers also provided 1.5 hour home visits to each mother and child designed to involve the mother in educational processes and to help implement the programme at home. The project monitored the achievement, motivation and social behaviour of teh children from of 3 to 41 years, 97% sample remained. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES- by the age of 27 7% of programme members comapred to 35% of control group had been arrested more than 5 times. 7% and 25% had been arrested for drug dealing. EARNINGS AND ECONOMIC STATUS- by the age of 27, x4 as many programmers as controls earned more than $2000 per month. 36% to 13% owned their own homes. EDUCATION- 71% and 54% passed high school by GED or Better. These finding show that high- quality pre- school programmescan significantly increase children's future contributions to society.
What type of crime prevention is missing?
In a survery of police crime prevention priorities in the North West England, vehicle crim , burglary, violent crime etc are often targetted. Yet in the same geographical area, green crime is being ignored by the police. Crime prevention strategies should focus on all issues including crimes such as nuclear power plants that increase cancer cases etc.
Punishment of Crime
DETTERANCE- putting people off of crime. this doesnt exist in USA as they have harsh punishments but still high crime rates. 1980's Tougher Regime project with Thatcher. REHABILITATION- reform and reintegration. they counsel the individual to find the real cause of the problem. INCAPACITATION- capital punishment and the removal of limbs. EXPRESSIVE PUNISHMENT- e.g. honour killings however this doesnt solve issues in the long term. EVAL= DURKHEIM- punishment has changed... we used to want to see the punishment happen we now try to solve the issues to why they commited crime in the first place. the criminals are now seen as worth saving. we are now trying to convince the criminal to face up to what they have done and apoligise and see what they have done to victims. include pond analogy. e.g. Azande witchcraft tribe made 'witches' apoligise and encouraged others to listen to and accept it. MARXIST- the harsh punishments of the 2011 summer riots actually made us laugh e.g. getting years in jail for stealing trainers! ALTHUSSER- we are controlled in 2 ways- repressive state apparatus e.g. visible deterrants, and ideological state apparatus. FOUCAULT- connected to marxism. power theory= we have been encouraged to discipline ourselves as the King/Queen used to enforce it now they don't. this is doen by ideological control through school etc.
USA and UK prisons are overcrowded. for 20/ 30 years now officers are trying to imprison more people. in 20 years the prison population has increased by 70%. obviously prison isn't working as re- offending rates are rising. 95% of prisoners are male.. are female crimes being ignored? most inmates are ethnic minorities, young and poor. in the USA, 1/10 adults are in prison!!! GARLAND- most prisoners are black men. they are 8 times more likely to go to prison than whites. some say the reason why so many are jail in USA is to make society more functional. 40% of the unemployed in USA are in jail. Transcarceration- passing someone from one institution to another. MURRAY- 4 pillars= family, faith, work and community... the more of these core institutions there are in one person's life the less likely they are to go to prison.
Victims of Crime
" those who have suffered harm through acts that break the laws of the state". CHRISTIE- the notion of victim is socially constructed. the media like to portray the ideal victim which increases their divide from the rest of society. POSITIVIST- will include the quantification of criminal activity, and identify patterns. they try to find what makes someone a victim. WOLFGANG= studied homicide. 26% involved victim precipitation.. the victim had triggered the events that led to their death. this created a new idea... who becomes the victim could be due to chance. EVAL- Positivists focusses on interpersonal victimisation... ignores wider structural factors like poverty/ patriarchy. it can easily turn into victim blaming. victims aren't always aware of th crimes they are involved in e.g. where no laws have actually been broken.
CRITICAL VICTIMOLOGY- based on structural/ conflict theories. MAWBY AND WALKLATE= victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness e.g. women and the poor. THE ROLE OF THE STATE- victim is a social construct like the term criminal. Its the state that decides who is labelled the victim. TOMBS AND WHYTE- employees are often labelled accident prone as a result of bad health and safety procedures rather than victims of criminal neglect which needs punishing. Rape victims may not be labelled as victims by a patriarchal society. FAILURE TO LABEL- by not labelling all victims we hide the true extent of victimisation and its true causes. we hide the crimes of the powerful. there seems to be a hierarchy of victimisation. the powerless are the most likely to be victimised but at least they are acknowledged by the state.
PATTERNS- In a given year, 4% of the population experience 44% of the crime. IMPACT- serious emotional/ physical damage could occur. also the witnesses could be seen as victims due to trauma of what they saw. hate crimes also affect whole of communities as the value system of the community is challenged. SECONDARY VICTIMISATION- victims may suffer from abuse from jury etc due to incorrect sentencing or having to bring up past experiences. FEAR OF VICTIMISATION- irrational fear of becoming a victim occurs e.g. being scared to go out at night. Feminists argue that society should focus on a women's safety