Topic 9 - Control, punishment and victims


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Situational Crime Prevention - Clarke:
Three features of measures aimed at situational crime prevention:
1. Directed at specific crimes
2. involve managing/altering immediate environment of the crime
3. aim at increasing the effort and risks of committing crime and reducing the rewards
Underlying situational crime prevention approaches is a rational choice theory of crime
Most crime is opportunistic so SCP measures reduces the opportunities
Displacement - criticises SCP - does not reduce crime, simply displaces it (several forms)
Spatial - move elsewhere to commit crime
Temporal - committing crime at different time
Target - choose different victim
Tactical - use different method
Functional - commit different type of crime
SCP works to some extent in reducing some sorts of crime but with most measures there is likely to
be some displacement
Assumes criminals make rational calculations - may be committed under the influence of
Environmental Crime Prevention
Wilson and Kellings - 'broken windows' stands for all the signs of disorder and lack of concern for other
found in some neighbourhoods
Leaving broken windows unrepaired sends out the signal that no-one cares
Without remedial action from formal and informal social control, the situation deteriorates, pushing
respectable people to move out and area becomes magnet for deviants
Solution to crackdown on any disorder involves a 2 fold strategy:
1. Environmental improvement strategy: any broken window must be repaired immediately otherwise
more will follow
2. Zero tolerance policing strategy: police must proactively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder -
this will prevent serious crime taking root
Social and community crime prevention:
Place emphasis on the potential offender and their social context
Aims to remove the conditions that predispose individuals to crime in the first place
E.g. Perry Pre-School Project: project for disadvantaged black children. 3-4 year olds offered a two year
intellectual programme and received weekly home visits (experiment group) By age of 40, less lifetime
arrests for violent crime and more had graduated from high school
^^these approaches disregard crimes of the powerful and environmental crime, focussing on fairly low-level
and/or interpersonal crimes of violence^^
Reduction: Justification for punishing offenders is that it prevents future crime
Deterrence - punishing the individuals discourages them form future offending
Rehabilitation - punishment can be used to reform/change offenders so no longer offence
Incapacitation - use of punishment to remove offenders capacity to offend again
Retribution: Justification for punishing crimes that have already been committed - based on the idea that
offenders deserved to be punished and that society is entitled to take its revenge on the offender
Sociological perspectives on punishment:
Durkheim: punishment reaffirms shared values

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Retributive justice - in traditional society, solidarity was based on similarity to one another: this
produces a strong collective conscience which when offended, responds with vengeful passion to
repress the wrong doer (punishment is expressive)
Restitutive justice - solidarity in modern society is based on interdependence between individuals -
crime damages interdependence so it is necessary to repair the damage = restitutive justice (aims to
restore things to how they were before)
Marxism: function of punishment is to maintain social order and is a means…read more


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