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Crime prevention and control
Situational Crime Prevention

Clarke: describes situational crime prevention as reducing opportunities for crime

For example, `target hardening' measures such as locking doors and windows
increase the effort a burglar needs to make such as CCTV.
A rational choice theory. This is the view that a criminal…

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Respectable people move out (if they can) and the area becomes a magnet for
deviants

Zero Tolerance Policy

A crack down on any disorder
Any "broken window" must repaired
Police must act proactively and tackle any sign of disorder, even if it is not criminal
Evidence: Homicide deaths fell in…

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Cutting off hands of thieves, chemical castration of
paedophiles



Retribution

Means "paying back"
Based on the idea that offenders deserve to be punished and the public should be
able to take their revenge on the offender
An expressive view of punishment ­ expresses society's outrage

Durkheim: A functionalist perspective
Argues…

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Disciplinary power: seeks to govern not just the body, but the mind or `soul' it
does so through surveillance.
^ This is illustrated by the panopticocn ­ this was a design for a prison in which all
prisoners' cells were visible to the guards but the prisoners could not see…

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Two broad perspectives: Positivist Victimology and Critical Victimology

Positivist Victimology Critical Victimology
Have 3 features Based on conflict theories such as Marxist
1. Identify the factors that produce and Feminism
patterns in victimisation
2. Focuses on interpersonal crimes of Structural factors: such as
violence patriarchy and poverty.
3. To identify…

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Ethnicity: Gender:
MEG are at greater risk than whites of being Males are at greater risk than females of
victims in general becoming victims of violent attacks,
especially strangers.
Women are more likely to be of domestic
violence, sexual violence etc
Repeat Victimisation:
If you have been a victim once…

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