Communication Disorders



Clasifying speech sounds by how they are produced

  • Voice Parameter
    • Closed vocal folds - glottal stop 
    • Open vocal folds - voiceless sounds 
    • Vibrating vocal folds - voiced sounds 
  • Place Parameter 
    • When the sound is articulated 
    • The active lower articulators move towards the passive upper articulators 
    • The tongue: most powerful articulator; tip, blade, front, back 
    • Nasal sounds: lower velum; air escapes through nose, M + N
    • Oral sounds: raised velum; air escapes through mouth, P + T + S
  • Manner Parameter 
    • The way in which air is released in the production of consonants
    • Plosive
      • Production involves a complete closure at some point in the vocal tract: air pressure builds up behind this closure 
      • Sound is then released suddenly resulting in a small explosion of air 
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Phonology 2

Manner Parameter 

  • Fricative 
    • Production involves two articulators being brought so closely together that the passage of the air stream through them creates turbulence and audible friction 
  • Affricate 
    • Production involes a complete closure at some point in the mouth with a build up of pressure behind the closure but the release is slower than that associated with a plosive which produces audible friction 
    • A plosive with a fricative release
  • Glide
    • Production involves bringing two articulators less closely together than in the case for fricatives thereby creating less audible firction, resulting in a vowel like quality 
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Child Phonological Development

  • Differential Rate of Phonological Acquisition 
    • 1.6 years : P B M H N W 
    • 2 years : K G D T N 
    • 2.6 years : F 
    • 3 years : R L S 
    • 3.6 years : TH
    • 4 years : Z DGE 
    • 4.6 years : V 
  • Which factors affect the differential rate of acquisition? 
    • Visibility
      • Relationships with infants is physically close
    • Complexity 
    • Frequency 
      • Sounds you hear first 
  • Gradual nature of phonological development 
    • Children gradually build up an inventory of speech sounds 
    • Errors are not random but governed by a number of phonological processes 
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Phonological Errors in Children's Speech

  • Substitution Errors: articulating a sound the child can rather than the adult target 
    • Voice Parameter
      • Voicing of voiceless consonants 
      • Devoicing of voiced consonants 
    • Place Parameter
      • Fronting: articulating the sound further forward in the mouth 
    • Manner Parameter 
      • Stopping: forming a complete closure in the vocal tract rather than a gradual release 
      • Fricative to plosive 
  • Deletion Errors: omission of one or more sounds  
    • Single consonant deletion 
    • Consonant cluster reduction 
    • Syllable deletion 
  • Epenthesis Errors: addition of one or more spurious sounds 
    • Blue to belue 
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What governs Phonological Errors?

  • Internal Principle 
    • Sound is replaced by one internal to the language 
  • Proximity Principle 
    • Sound is replaced by one that is close to the target 
  • Simple Principle 
    • Change one feature 
  • Rarely see a feature where all three principles are changes 
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Morphological Development

  • Morphemes
    • Smallest unit of meaning 
    • Words that stand alone are free morphemes 
    • Bound morphemes must be attached to a word 
    • Acquisition of bound morphemes takes time and is gradual
  • Grammatical morphemes and their rate of acquisition

1. Present progressive - ing

2. Plural - s

Plural irregular (feet, mice)

Past irregular (went, came)

3. Possessive - s

5. Past regular - ed

4. Present regular - s

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Determining Factors of Grammatical Morphemes Devel

  • Rate of Acquisition 
    • Case by case learning 
    • Overuse of general rule
    • Mastery of exceptions to the general rule 
  • Determining factors
    • Frequency 
    • Syllable structure 
    • Relationship with form and meaning 
    • NO exceptions in use 
    • Allomorphic variation 
    • Semantic function 

Are those morphemes last acquired the most vulnerable in language disorders? 

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Syntactic Development

  • Stage One 
    • 12-18 months: for several months, children speak in single word utterances 
    • Want, bye bye, more, daddy, teddy, no, hi 
  • Stage Two 
    • 18-24 months: children begin to put two words together 
    • Telegraphic speech: this reflects the idea that children initially use a reduced/imperfect form of adult sentence patterns - like the old telegrams 
    • Children use content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositions)
    • Omit function words (determiners, auxilliaries, complementizers) and bound morphemes 
      • Less meaning 
      • Unstressed morphemes 
      • Underlying knowledge does not include the grammatical categories that govern the use of those omitted forms
    • Affirimative, declarative sentences
  • Stage Three 
    • 24+ months - multi word utterances 
    • 'I can't do it' 'Me dont know' 
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Pragmatic Development

  • Development of Communicative Competence 
    • Learning to use language 
    • Children need pragmatic, discourse and sociolinguistic understanding 
    • Babies discover that communication is possible by observing the effects of their initially non communicative noises on the listener 
    • Pre school children are egocentric 
    • Appropriate language use takes time, they need to learn cultural norms such as politness, request forms, turn taking, narrative structure
  • Pragmatic Phrases
    • Perlocutionary
      • Having effects: children have effect on their listener (0-9 months)
    • Illocutionary 
      • Having intentions: children realise that other people can be helpful in satisfying ones goals (10 months)
    • Locutionary 
      • Using language to refer (1 year +)
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Slips of the Tongue

  • What is a slip of the tongue? 
    • A localised difficulty a speaker has in forming the articulatory program to guide the articulatory muscles in the production of sounds 
    • An involuntary deviation in performance from the speakers current phonological, grammatical or lexical intention 
  • The Laws
    • Each speech error results in a sequence of sounds that's permitted in the language being spoken - bright to blight 
    • Segmental errors: the beggining of a syllable changes with a beginning, similarly for middles and ends - car park to par cark 
    • Sounds shift between lexical categories, words exchange with other members of the same class - double bed to bouble bed 
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Types of Errors

  • Selection Errors 
    • Wrong item is chosen 
    • Word substitutions 
      • Its hot in here please turn up the radiator 
      • Results in self correction 
      • Not random, come from same grammatical class and are typically semantically and/or phonologically related 
    • Malopropism 
      • Im simply ravishing (said when hungry)
      • Ridiculous misuse of word, trying to better style 
    • Environmental contamination 
      • Can you answer the telly for me? 
      • Tiredness 
    • Blend 
      • Frowl (frown and scowl)
      • Overlaps 
      • Dont make decision quick enough 
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Types of Errors 2

  • Programming Errors 
    • Correct choice of words but program set up for utterance has been faultily executed 
    • Substitutions 
    • Anticipation 
      • A segment produced reflects the influence of one occuring later 
      • A leading list (reading list) 
    • Perseveration 
      • A segment produced reflects the influence of one occuring earlier 
      • A phonological fool (phonological rule)
    • Transposition 
      • Two units interchange 
      • Cat and hoat (coat and hat) 
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Articulatory program is found at different levels

  • Phrases 
    • The grand canyon went to my sister 
  • Words 
    • A gas of tank 
  • Syllables 
    • Schactwell and Stockter (Stockwell and Schacter)
  • Phonetic Segment 
    • Sea weeded the garden (Sue weeded the garden)
  • Phonetic Features 
    • Pig and vat (Big and fat)

Similar errors occur in sign language 

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Psycholinguistic Model of this Process

Communication Chain in more detail 

  • Garrett 1976
  • Meaning Selection 
    • Decide on meaning the present constituent should have 
  • Selection of Syntactic Outline 
    • Build a syntactic outline of the constituent, specify a succession of word slots and indicate which slots get primary, secondary and zero stress, rooting grammar
  • Content Word Selection 
    • Select nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs to fit into the appropriate slots
  • Affix and Function Word Formation 
    • With the content words decided, next step is to spell out the phonological shape of the function words (articles, conjunctions and prepositions), prefixes and suffixes 
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