Communities and Networks

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  • Communities & Networks
    • Speech Communities
      • 1) Defined exclusively by linguistic practice
        • But knowledge or the social use of a language is also part of what it means to be a speaker of X
          • 2) Shared linguistic practice + shared norms
            • Labov (1972)
      • Uses
        • Geographically bounded urban communities
        • Urban neighbourhoods and subgroups
        • Urban immigrants as distinct from their source and target group
        • "national unity of people"
          • Dittmar (1976)
        • Children
          • Romaine (1982)
        • Women
          • Coates (1993)
        • Temp - e.g. members of a jury
      • Problems
        • Debate over how to define a speech community
          • 'A language based unit of social analysis' - Bucholtz (1999)
          • 'A socially based unit of linguistic analysis' - Patrick (2002)
        • What do you name a speech community?
        • Can you belong to more than one speech community?
        • Can you be more a member of one comunnity than another?
      • We can belong to multiple communities and have different kinds of belonging to different groups
    • Groupings and Social Networks
      • Linking an individual to a group doesn't mean that the social groups are realy things
        • Groupings imposed by analysis
      • Network = totality of people we have contact with
        • Density: number of links
        • Multiplicity: content of links
      • The more centrally located an individual is in a network, the more that individual tends to observe group norms
      • Different social networks have different structures
    • Communities of Practice
      • Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (1992, 1995)
      • Mutual engagement in some common endeavour
      • 'Defined simultaneously by its membership and by the practice in which that membership engages' - Eckert 2(000)

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