cold environments


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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 13-04-14 16:36

Borrowdale valley + Watendlath valley

ROCHE MOUTONEE - The How 

PUSH MORAINE - Rosthwaite 

RECESSIONAL MORAINE - Rosthwaite 

BEADED ESKER - Rosthwaite 

DIFFLUENCE CHANNEL - Rosthwaite 

LAKE BED DEPOSITS - Rosthwaite 

ICE MARGINAL CHANNEL - along River Derwent 

SURPRISE VIEW - Derwent water 

LORDORE CASCADE - Derwent water delta 

BOWDER STONE - along River Derwent 

WATENDLATH VALLEY - MISFIT STREAM, LATERAL MORAINE, ROCK BAR, ROCHE MOUT.

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Trans Alaskan Pipeline System (TAPS) management

background

  • 124,000 heat pipes along pipeline / 800 miles 
  • crosses 3 mountain ranges 
  • 17 billion barrels through 
  • $8 Bn to build 

challenges passing over Denali fault 

  • 2002 magnitude 7.9 in south-central Alaska 
  • ruptured 336 km 

Exxon Valdez oil spill

  • failed to make turn back into shipping lanes + ran aground 1989
  • 11 M gallons spilled 
  • 250,000 sea birds , 250 bald eagles + 22 killer whales affected 

design features to allow efficiency 

  • 75% travels over permafrost / 420 miles elevated above soil / zig-zag allows movement
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corrie glacier - RED TARN

DIAGRAM 

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valley glacier - BORROWDALE

DIAGRAM 

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glacial erosion - the How

STRIATIONS 

ROCHE MOUTONNEE 

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glacial erosion (2) - Watendlath

HANGING VALLEY / TRUCATED SPURS / ARETE / RIBBON LAKES / MISFIT STREAM / PYRAMIDAL HORN 

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glacial erosion (3) - ROSTHWAITE

DIFFLUENCE CHANNEL 

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glacial deposition - CROW PARK, KESWICK

DRUMLIN 

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glacial deposition (2) - ROSTHWAITE / WATENDLATH /

transverse :PUSH MORAINE / RECESSIONAL MORAINE / END MORAINE (extra) / TERMINAL MORAINE (extra)

longitudinal : LATERAL MORAINE (watendlath) MEDIAL MORAINE (extra)

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fluvioglacial erosion - after Rosthwaite

ICE MARGINAL CHANNEL 

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fluvioglacial deposition - Rosthwaite

BEADED ESKER / VARVES / KAMES / KAME TERRACES 

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weathering

PHYSICAL 

FREEZE THAW 

  • 9.05% at -22d.c => max. pressure of 2115 kg/cm^2 + number of migrations over 0d.c
  • SCREE SLOPE formed by angular fragments of weathered material 

HYDRATION  - addition + removal of water from rock => creates stresses 

  • a) because of general swelling (Water added) 
  • b) minerals absorb at different amounts (different exansion figures)

CHEMICAL  - MELTWATER (CARBONATION)

  • carbonate based rocks (limestone)
  • CO2 more soluble in colder temps => weak carbonic acid formed in melwater streams 

BIOLOGICAL -

  • very little compared to temperate regions (Shallow roots + little growth rate) 
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erosion

PLUCKING 

  • rocks + stones around glacier become frozen to base or sides of ice 
  • then glacier moves and either: 
  • rocks stays + ice breaks off OR ice plucks rock out of the ground 

ABRASION 

  • when a relatively hard rock rubs against a softer rock 
  • rocks + stones picked up by glacier by plucking or moraine that debris falls through glacier 
  • rubs against bedrock + side as glacier moves 
  • rocs scratch away leaving STRIATIONS
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conflicts - Napal tourism

  • 4000x world health stands water pollution 
  • 300,000 people arrrive per year 
  • Himalyas 12,000 visit with 3000 residents 
  • everest national park 

DEFORESTATION 

  • population + tourism increase 
  • inc. flood risk + destroyed habitats
  • footpath erosion = silt in rivers 
  • wood - heating, cooking, construction 
  • 1 SHOWER = 3 TREES (slowly growing in cold environment)

LITTER

  • used to be 2/3 metres high - cleanup funded by mountaineers 
  • $6000 depoit + refunded if litter taken home 

REFORESTATION - 5cm / year tree growth 

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