Issues in cold environments

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  • Created by: Junior
  • Created on: 05-05-13 17:07
What kind of resources attract development in cold environments?
Whales/seals/fish hunted in northern Russia for skins/meat/blubber, fishing industry one of worlds largest. minerals, gold in Canada/Alaska, gold rush led to mining towns. Oil, alaska oil companies exploit resource.
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How much as tourism increased by in Antarctica since 1992?
6700 in 1992 to 46,000 in 2008
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Why do cold environments have fragile ecosystems?
Harsh climate, short growing season means plants don't have time to recover damage, animals and plants adapted to cold environments difficult to adapt to change (snowshoe hare USA), slow decay due to cold pollution broken down very slowly remains a l
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\describe the three different types of tundra and the relief of the land
Areas too cold for trees to grow, high altitude or latitude. Arctic tundra=Greenland, N.Russia &Canada. Alpine Tundra: islands round Antarctica= South Georgia. Alpine tundra, alpine environments. vegetation:shrubs,grasses,mosses.Animals: seals,bears
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In what ways does fishing damage the ecosystem in cold environments?
Disrupt food chains:krill, southern ocean depletes supply for whales &penguins. overfishing: depletes population, Patagonian Toothfish in Antarctic. Bottom trawling: reduces light levels (turbidity) and catches other species. Gulf of Alaska.
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In what ways does oil extraction damage the ecosystem?
Oil spills during transport: 1989 oil spill of coast of Alaska, Exxon Valdez oil tanker, 40 million liters of oil spilled, 250,000 birds&fish killed. Pipeline leaks: 1997-1994 avg 30-40 spills per year
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How does HEP and tourism effect ecosystems in cold environments?
HEP dams block migratory path of fish, can't reach spawning grounds. dams heat up water, endanger fish from cooler waters. Tourism: large cruise ships increase pollution, developments (roads/hotels) disrupt widelife and habitats, reduced biodiversity
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How does Mining effect ecosystems in cold environments?
Ground and suirface water contamination, by chemicals used during mining or materials being mined. lead zinc mine Greenland closed 1970 still polluting nearby fjords. solidwaste and wastewater produced,Red Dog mine Alaska, waste released in enviro.
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How were the Inuit tribes in Northern Canada, Greenland and Russia affect by the arrival of new comers?
17th century, opp for whale &seal hunting for fur and oil for lamps and candles.New diseases:TB,small pox, flu, 90% Inuvialuit died late 19th century (Canadian) increased fishing unsustainable reduced whales and fish population.
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How have the idigenous people had to change their lifestyles?
less resources had to seek paid employment, few jobs go to more educated whiute population. Inuits now live in permanent settlements rather than nomadic.
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How can development in cold environments be made more sustainable?
not deplete resources or cause long term environmental damage.national parks for tourism, Denali national park Alaska 1917 cars banned in park, approved routes, (permafrost). Fishing quotas, Barents Sea, prevent exploitation, pipe shuttoff valves.
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Card 2

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How much as tourism increased by in Antarctica since 1992?

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6700 in 1992 to 46,000 in 2008

Card 3

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Why do cold environments have fragile ecosystems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

\describe the three different types of tundra and the relief of the land

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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In what ways does fishing damage the ecosystem in cold environments?

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