Coasts Revision

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What is a coast?

Coast - narrow contact zone between land + sea

Important - 

  • tourism                         
  • trade
  • coastal habitats
  • tidal/wave energy
  • water sports
  • transport
  • defense
  • employment

Dangerous-

  • wind/water erosion
  • acid rain
  • sea level rise
  • low-lying areas

 

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What is a coast?

Conflict-

  • space
  • reefs
  • beaches-best sand etc.
  • attractiveness
  • population
  • businesses
  • noise pollution
  • unique, valuable, often threatened areas
  • coastline - ever chaniging boundary zone between land + marine/sea environment

 

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Waves and the coast

Fetch - distance waves travel across body of water before hitting coastline.

  • controlled by size of ocean
  • power of waves influenced by power of wind pushing waves
  • strong wind, long fetch - more likely to produce destructive waves
  • wind blowing over sea creates friction
  • waves formed due to circular motion formed
  • base of wave moves slower than top of wave
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Types of wave

Destructive waves

  • waves tall relative to length
  • waves frequent - between 10 & 14 breaking into shore every min
  • waves create steep beach angle
  • often produce pebbly beaches
  • tail breaker - wave breaks down onto beach
  • weak swash, strong backwash
  • formed by bad storms

Constructive Waves

  • waves flat relative to length
  • waves less frequent - between 6 & 8breaking into shore every min
  • waves create gradual  beach angle
  • often produce sandy beaches
  • strong swash, weak backwash
  • formed in middle of ocean 

Swash - forward movement of wave up beach   Backwash - backward movement down beach & wave broken

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Longshore Drift

Longshore drift - process which waves move material along coast.

  • in 1 direction only - of prevailling wind
  • e.g. Britain - from SW
  • backwash always at right angle to beach
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Coastal Processes

Erosion

Weathering - breakup or decay of rocks in oringinal place or close to earth's surface

Erosion - wearing away of land's surface. Inc. breakdown of rock & its removal by wind, water or ice

Land based processes - subaerial erosion

Sea based processes - marine erosion

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