Coasts revision

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Coasts
Types
of
Waves
Waves
-
These
are
formed
by
the
transfer
of
energy
from
the
wind
blowing
over
the
surface
of
the
sea.
As
waves
move
towards
the
coast
they
begin
to
lose
energy
due
to
the
friction
with
the
shore.
The
movement
of
the
wave
up
the
shore
is
called
the
swash
and
the
movement
back
down
the
shore
is
called
the
backwash.
Fetch
-
The
distance
the
wind
blows
over
the
sea
uninterrupted.
Constructive
and
destructive
waves
There
are
two
main
types
of
waves,
constructive
and
destructive.
Constructive
Destructive
Strong
swash
Weak
swash
Weak
backwash
Strong
backwash
Limited
energy
Lots
of
energy
Breaks
less
frequently
Breaks
every
10-15
mins
Low
wave
height,
long
wave
length
High
waves
but
shorter
wave
length
Created
in
calmer
weather
Created
in
storm
conditions
Deposit
material
and
build
up
beaches
Erode
beaches
Transport
and
its
Features
There
are
four
ways
the
sea
transports
material.
Traction
-
large
pebbles/stones
are
rolled
along
the
sea
floor.
Saltation
-
Small
sand
sized
particles
are
bounced
along
the
sea
bed.
Suspension
-
Small
clay
sized
particles
that
are
floating
in
the
sea
water.
Solution
-
carrying
materials
dissolved
in
the
water.
Processes
of
erosion
Hydraulic
action
-
The
pressure
of
the
water
being
thrown
against
cliffs.
It
compresses
the
air
in
cracks
breaking
the
rock
apart.
Abrasion
-
Sand
and
pebbles
carried
in
the
wave
being
thrown
at
the
cliff,
eroding
them
away.
Corrosion
-
A
chemical
reaction
between
some
rocks
and
the
salt
water.

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Page 2

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Attrition
-
The
wearing
away
of
the
rocks/pebbles
on
the
shore
as
they
hit
into
each
other
as
the
waves
come
in.
Processes
of
weathering
Physical
Freeze
Thaw
-
When
water
enters
crack
in
the
rock
and
freezes
over
night,
causing
it
to
expand
and
break
apart
the
rock.
When
it
melts
in
the
day,
it
moves
down
the
crack
and
thr
process
repeats.
Exfoliation
-
In
hotter
climates
during
the
day
when
temperatures
are
high
rocks
warm
up
and
expand.…read more

Page 3

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Headlands
and
Bays
These
form
when
there
are
alternating
bands
of
hard
and
soft
rock
at
90°
to
the
coast.
Destructive
waves
erode
back
the
bands
of
soft
rocks
to
form
bays.
The
waves
do
not
erode
the
harder
rocks
as
fast
so
headlands
form
sticking
out
to
sea.
The
headlands
are
now
more
vulnerable
to
erosion
but
so
protect
the
in-laying
bays.
Beaches
may
form
in
the
bays.…read more

Page 4

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This
is
the
main
way
the
sea
transports
material
along
the
coast.
1.
Swash
moves
material
up
up
the
beach
in
the
same
direction
as
the
wind.
2.
Backwash
moves
material
down
the
beach
at
90°
due
to
gravity
Spits
and
Bars
Spits
-
Long
narrow
accumulations
of
sand
and
shingle
with
one
end
attached
to
the
land
and
the
other
pointing
out
into
the
sea.
Spits
occur
when
LSD
is
moving
material
along
the
coastline.…read more

Page 5

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The
type
of
rock
forming
the
coastline
-
resistant
rock
will
erode
more
slowly
than
soft
rock.
4.
Rock
structure
-
rocks
that
are
well
jointed
will
erode
much
faster
as
the
waves
exploit
the
areas
of
weakness.
5.
Cliff
gradient
-
cliffs
that
are
gentle
and
well
vegetated
will
be
more
resistant
to
mass
movement
and
weathering
than
bare
rock
cliffs.…read more

Page 6

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Soft
Engineering
Description
and
cost
Advantages
Disadvantages
Beach
The
placing
on
sand
and
-
Looks
natural
-
May
affect
plant
and
animal
replenishment
pebbles
on
a
beach.…read more

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