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Page 1

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Coasts

Types
of
Waves


Waves
-
These
are
formed
by
the
transfer
of
energy
from
the
wind
blowing
over
the
surface

of
the
sea.
As
waves
move
towards
the
coast
they
begin
to
lose
energy
due
to
the
friction

with
the
shore.
The
movement
of
the
wave
up
the
shore…

Page 2

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Attrition
-
The
wearing
away
of
the
rocks/pebbles
on
the
shore
as
they
hit
into
each
other
as

the
waves
come
in.



Processes
of
weathering


Physical


Freeze
Thaw
-
When
water
enters
crack
in
the
rock
and
freezes
over
night,
causing
it
to

expand
and
break
apart
the
rock.
When…

Page 3

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Headlands
and
Bays


These
form
when
there
are
alternating
bands
of

hard
and
soft
rock
at
90°
to
the
coast.
Destructive

waves
erode
back
the
bands
of
soft
rocks
to
form

bays.
The
waves
do
not
erode
the
harder
rocks
as

fast
so
headlands
form
sticking
out
to
sea.
The…

Page 4

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This
is
the
main
way
the
sea
transports
material
along
the
coast.


1.
Swash
moves
material
up
up
the
beach
in
the
same
direction
as
the
wind.


2.
Backwash
moves
material
down
the
beach
at
90°
due
to
gravity


Spits
and
Bars


Spits
-
Long
narrow
accumulations
of
sand
and…

Page 5

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3.
The
type
of
rock
forming
the
coastline
-
resistant
rock
will
erode
more
slowly
than
soft

rock.


4.
Rock
structure
-
rocks
that
are
well
jointed
will
erode
much
faster
as
the
waves
exploit
the

areas
of
weakness.


5.
Cliff
gradient
-
cliffs
that
are
gentle
and
well
vegetated…

Page 6

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Soft
Engineering
Description
and
cost
Advantages
Disadvantages

Beach
The
placing
on
sand
and
-
Looks
natural
-
May
affect
plant
and
animal

replenishment
pebbles
on
a
beach.
-
Provides
beach
for
tourists
life

£5000
per
100
metres
-
Beach
is
the
best
form
of
-
Requires
maintenance

natural
defence
-…

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