Geography Revision

Upland Landscapes
An area high above sea level (200m +) - Generally upland areas are found in the north in Scotland. An example is the Grampians
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Lowland Landscapes
An area which is at or near sea level (200m -) - Lowland areas are most common in south east England such as the Broads
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Glaciated Landscapes
An area which has been previously covered by glaciers
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Difference between weathering and erosion
Weathering stays in one place, whereas erosion moves
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Mechanical, Biological, Chemical
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Mass Movement
Sliding, Slumping
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Hydraulic Action, Abrasion, Attrition, Solution
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Traction, Saltation, Suspension, Solution
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Mechanical Weathering
Actions of rain, frost, sun and wind that create weaknesses in rocks.
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Freeze-Thaw Weathering
A type of mechanical weathering process occuring when water seeps in to cracks in rock, free (expand) and then melt (contract). This process happens over and over, making the cracks bigger and water until, over time it weathers.
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Onion-Skin Weathering
A type of mechanical weathering process occuring when the sun heats up the surface of rocks, causing it to expand and then contract at night. Over time the surface layer will break up and layer of rock peel off.
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Biological Weathering
Actions of living organisms such as plants and animals breaking down rocks. An example would be animals burrowing, causing the rocks to dislodge or plant roots growing into rocks and forcing them apart as they grow bigger.
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Chemical Weathering
Minerals in the rock reacting with chemicals.
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Type of chemical weathering caused by oxygen in the air, occurring when oxygen combines with something else that will form an oxide. When a rock is oxidized, it weakens causing it to crumble. E.g when iron + oxygen blend, forming iron oxide (rust)
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Chemical Weathering - When carbon dioxide mixes with rainwater, it makes carbonic acid. Coming into contact with limestone, it reacts forming calcuim bicarbonate. As calcuim bicarbonate is soluble it is carried away, gradually weathering the rock
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Mass Movement
Process which occurs when material move by the force of gravity
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Sliding is when the top section of a slope detaches and slides down the slope, still intact
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Slumping is when the base of a mountain of cliff is eroded away. Without a base the bit of cliff slumps down a distance.
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Hydraulic Action
Where the water and air is hurled into cracks in the rocks, forcing them to get bigger until bits eventually fall away
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Ehere rocks are used as ammunition and hurled against rocks with the waves. This causes small bits to erode.
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Where the rocks in the water knock against each other. over time they become smaller, smoother and mroe rounded.
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Where rocks are dissolved in water
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Movement of large sediments by rolling along the bottom of the sea or river bed
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Where smaller pieces of sediment are bounced along the bottom of the sea or river bed
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Smaller particles are carried along with the water
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Where dissolved substances are carried along in the water
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Where the river loses energy and drops any of the material that is has been carrying. This is most common where the water is shallow, it is near the river's mouth or when the amount of water decreases.
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Extended stretch of beach materials that goes out to sea and is attached to mainland at one side. Spits occur when there is a change in shape of the coast or is there is a river mouth. An example of Slapton Ley in Devon.
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When a spit grows across and joins two headlands together. Sometimes lakes are formed as a result of bars as the bar can trap water. An example is Slapton Ley in Devon.
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An inlet of the sea where there is an inwards curve of the land. An example is Swanage.
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An area of resistant rock that extends form the coast out to sea. They are formed when soft rocks layer, such as soil or sand, erode leaving the hard rock formation to form headlands. An example is Swanage.
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Where hydraulic action and abrasion is performed. As the waves continue to grind at the crack, it begins to enlarge and open up, forming a cave. An example of Wookey Hole Caves.
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When a cave continues to be eroded and breaks through to the other side, forming an arch. This would typically occur at a headland. An example is Durdle Door.
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Where the base of the arches becomes wider until its roof becomes too heavy and collapses into the sea, leaving a stack. An example is Old Harry Rocks, found off a headland in the Isle of Purbeck
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Where a stack collapses, leaving a stump. For example Old Harry Rocks
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Shaped through erosion and weathering. Soft rock erodes quickly to form gently sloping cliffs whereas hard rocks are more resistant and form steep cliffs. An example is White Cliff of Dover.
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Wave-cut Platform
Where the base of the cliff is eroded away causing the cliff to fall away. The backwash carries away the eroded material, leaving a wave-cut platform. For example at Kimmerige.
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Line of sediment that connects an island to the mainland or to another island, caused by longshore drift. An example is Chesil Beach.
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Longshore Drift
Transport of sediment along the coast
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Waster moving onto the beach after a wave breaks
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Water moving back down into the sea
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


An area which is at or near sea level (200m -) - Lowland areas are most common in south east England such as the Broads


Lowland Landscapes

Card 3


An area which has been previously covered by glaciers


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Weathering stays in one place, whereas erosion moves


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Mechanical, Biological, Chemical


Preview of the back of card 5
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